Nos. 19-840 and 19-1019.

141 S.Ct. 2104 (2021)

CALIFORNIA, et al., Petitioners v. TEXAS, et al.; Texas, et al., Petitioners v. California, et al.

Supreme Court of United States.

Decided June 17, 2021.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Ken Paxton , Attorney General of Texas, Jeffrey C. Mateer , First Assistant Attorney General, Ryan L. Bangert , Deputy First Assistant Attorney General. Kyle D. Hawkins , Solicitor General, Counsel of Record, Matthew H. Frederick , Deputy Solicitor General, Lanora C. Pettit , Judd E. Stone II , Assistant Solicitors General, Office of The Attorney General, Austin, Texas, for Cross-Petitioners.

Xavier Becerra , Attorney General of California, Kathleen Boergers , Supervising Deputy Attorney General, Nimrod Pitsker Elias , Neli N. Palma , Deputy Attorneys General. Michael J. Mongan , Solicitor General, Samuel P. Siegel , Counsel of Record, Deputy Solicitor General, Amari L. Hammonds , Associate Deputy Solicitor General. State of California, Department of Justice, Sacramento, CA, for Petitioners-Cross-Respondents.

William Tong , Attorney General of Connecticut, Joseph Rubin , Assistant Deputy Attorney General Counsel for the State of Connecticut.

Philip J. Weiser , Attorney General of Colorado, Eric R. Olson , Solicitor General, Counsel for the State of Colorado.

Kathleen Jennings , Attorney General of Delaware, Christian Douglas Wright , Director of Impact Litigation, Ilona Kirshon , Deputy State Solicitor, Jessica M. Willey , Deputy Attorney General, Counsel for the State of Delaware.

Clare E. Connors , Attorney General of Hawaii, Robert T. Nakatsuji , First Deputy Solicitor General, Counsel for the State of Hawaii.

Kwame Raoul , Attorney General of Illinois, Jane Elinor Notz , Solicitor General, David F. Buysse , Deputy Chief, Public Interest Division, Matthew V. Chimienti , Assistant Attorney General, Special Litigation Bureau Counsel for the State of Illinois.

Thomas J. Miller , Attorney General of Iowa, Nathan Blake , Deputy Attorney General Counsel for the State of Iowa.

Maura Healey , Attorney General of Massachusetts, Eric Gold , Chief, Health Care Division Counsel for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Dana Nessel , Attorney General of Michigan, Fadwa A. Hammoud , Solicitor General Counsel for the State of Michigan.

Keith Ellison , Attorney General of Minnesota, Scott Ikeda , Assistant Attorney General Counsel for the State of Minnesota, by and through its Department of Commerce.

Aaron D. Ford , Attorney General of Nevada, Heidi Parry Stern , Solicitor General Counsel for the State of Nevada.

Gurbir S. Grewal , Attorney General of New Jersey, Matthew J. Berns , Assistant Attorney General, Marie Soueid , Deputy Attorney General Counsel for the State of New Jersey.

Letitia James , Attorney General of New York, Barbara D. Underwood , Solicitor General, Steven C. Wu Deputy Solicitor General, Lisa Landau , Bureau Chief, Health Care Bureau, Elizabeth Chesler , Assistant Attorney General, Health Care Bureau Counsel for the State of New York.

Joshua H. Stein , Attorney General of North Carolina, Ryan Y. Park , Solicitor General, Sripriya Narasimhan , Deputy General Counsel, Counsel for the State of North Carolina.

Ellen F. Rosenblum , Attorney General of Oregon, Benjamin Gutman , Solicitor General, Counsel for the State of Oregon.

Peter F. Neronha , Attorney General of Rhode Island, Michael W. Field , Maria R. Lenz , Assistant Attorneys General Counsel for the State of Rhode Island.

Thomas J. Donovan, JR. , Attorney General of Vermont, Benjamin D. Battles , Solicitor General Counsel for the State of Vermont.

Mark R. Herring , Attorney General of Virginia, Toby J. Heytens , Solicitor General, Counsel for the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Robert W. Ferguson , Attorney General of Washington, Jeffrey G. Rupert , Chief, Complex Litigation Divisio, Jeffrey T. Sprung , Assistant Attorney General Counsel for the State of Washington.

La Tasha Buckner , General Counsel, S. Travis Mayo , Chief Deputy General Counsel, Taylor Payne , Deputy General Counsel, Counsel for Andy Beshear, Governor of Kentucky.

Karl A. Racine , Attorney General for the District of Columbia, Loren L. Alikhan , Solicitor General, Caroline S. Van Zile , Principal Deputy Solicitor General Counsel for the District of Columbia.

Donald B. Verrilli, Jr. , Elaine J. Goldenberg , Ginger D. Anders , Jonathan S. Meltzer , Jeremy S. Kreisberg , Rachel G. Miller-Ziegler , Jacobus P. van der Ven , Munger, Tolles & Olson LLP, Washington, D.C., Elizabeth B. Wydra , Brianne J. Gorod , Ashwin P. Phatak , Constitutional Accountability Center, Washington, D.C., Douglas N. Letter , General Counsel, Counsel of Record, Adam A. Grogg , Associate General Counsel, Jonathan B. Schwartz , Attorney Office of General Counsel, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., Counsel for Respondent United States House of Representatives.

Tyler R. Green , Bryan Weir , Consovoy McCarthy PLLC, Arlington, VA, Robert Henneke , Counsel of Record, Munera Al-Fuhaid , J. Aaron Barnes , Texas Public Policy Foundation, Austin, TX, Counsel for Respondents Neill Hurley and John Nantz.

Noel J. Francisco Solicitor General Counsel of Record, Joseph H. Hunt , Assistant Attorney General, Jeffrey B. Wall , Deputy Solicitor General, Nicole Frazer Reaves , Assistant to the Solicitor General, August E. Flentje , Special Counsel, Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., for Respondents.

As originally enacted in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act required most Americans to obtain minimum essential health insurance coverage. The Act also imposed a monetary penalty, scaled according to income, upon individuals who failed...


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