No. SC11-1148.

134 So.3d 894 (2014)

ESTATE OF Michelle Evette McCALL, et al., Petitioners, v. UNITED STATES of America, Respondent.

Supreme Court of Florida.

March 13, 2014.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Henry T. Courtney and Sara Courtney-Baigorri of Courtney Law Firm, Coral Gables, FL; Stephen S. Poche of The Law Office of Stephen S. Poche, P.A., Shalimar, FL; and Robert S. Peck and Valerie M. Nannery of Center for Constitutional Litigation, P.C., Washington, District of Columbia, for Appellants.

Tony West , Assistant Attorney General, Pamela C. Marsh , United States Attorney, Daniel J. Lenerz and Thomas M. Bondy , Attorneys, Appellate Staff Civil Division, United States Department of Justice, Washington, District of Columbia; and Pamela A. Moine , United States Attorney's Office, Pensacola, FL, for Appellee.

Raoul G. Cantero and David P. Draigh of White & Case LLP, Miami, FL, for Amici Curiae Coral Gables Hospital, Delray Medical Center, Good Samaritan Medical Center, Hialeah Hospital, North Shore Medical Center, North Shore Medical Center-FMC Campus, Palm Beach Gardens Medical Center, Palmetto General Hospital, St. Mary's Medical Center and West Boca Medical Center.

Thomas E. Warner and Dean A. Morande of Carlton Fields, P.A., West Palm Beach, FL, for Amicus Curiae HCA Health Services of Florida, Inc.

Fred J. Hiestand , Sacramento, CA, for Amicus Curiae The Civil Justice Association of California.

Jennifer A. Tschetter , General Counsel, Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, FL; M. Drew Parker , General Counsel, and John Slye , Acting General Counsel, Florida Department of Children & Families, Tallahassee, FL; Dean C. Kowalchyk , General Counsel, Florida Department of Elder Affairs, Tallahassee, FL; William H. Roberts , Acting General Counsel, Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, Tallahassee, FL; and Mike Palecki , General Counsel, Florida Department of Agency for Persons with Disabilities, Tallahassee, FL, for Amici Curiae Surgeon General Frank Famer and Florida's Healthcare Agencies.

William W. Large , Tallahassee, FL, for Amicus Curiae Florida Justice Reform Institute.

Stephen Hogge of Stephen Hogge, Esq., LLC, Tallahassee, FL, for Amicus Curiae Professor Paul H. Rubin.

George N. Meros, Jr. and Allen Winsor of GrayRobinson PA, Tallahassee, FL, for Amici Curiae Florida College of Emergency Physicians and The Florida Orthopaedic Society.

Mark Hicks , Dinah Stein , and Shannon Kain of Hicks, Porter, Ebenfeld & Stein, P.A., Miami, FL, for Amicus Curiae Florida Medical Association.

Arthur J. England, Jr. and Christopher B. Carbot of Greenberg Traurig, P.A., Miami, Florida; Mark K. Delegal and Cynthia S. Tunnicliff of Pennington, Moore, Wilkinson, Bell & Dunbar, P.A., Tallahassee, FL, for Amici Curiae The Florida Hospital Association and The Safety Net Hospital Alliance of Florida.

Pamela Jo Bondi , Attorney General and Diane G. DeWolf , Deputy Solicitor General, Office of the Attorney General, Tallahassee, FL, for Amicus Curiae The State of Florida.

Christopher L. Nuland and Brian Hart of Law Offices of Christopher L. Nuland, P.A., Jacksonville, FL, for Amici Curiae The Florida Chapter of the American College of Physicians, Florida Chapter of the American College of Surgeons, Florida Obstetric and Gynecologic Society, Florida Society of Plastic Surgeons, Florida Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons, Florida Neurosurgical Society, Florida Society of General Surgeons, Florida Society of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery and Florida Gastroenterologic Society.

Michael L. Rosen of Shook Hardy & Bacon L.L.P., Tampa, FL; Mark A. Behrens and Cary Silverman of Shook Hardy & Bacon, WA, District of Columbia, for Amici Curiae American Medical Association, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Chambers of Commerce of the United States of American, Health Coalition on Liability and Access, Physicians Insurers Association of America, Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies, and NFIB Small Business Legal Center.

Lincoln J. Connolly of Rossman, Baumberger, Reboso, Spier & Connolly, P.A., Miami, FL, for Amici Curiae Floridians for Patient Protections, Inc. and Florida Consumer Action Network, Inc.

Barbara W. Green of Barbara Green, P.A., Coral Gables, Florida; and Joel S. Perwin of Joel S. Perwin, P.A., Miami, FL, for Amici Curiae The Florida Justice Association, AARP, Florida AFL-CIO, and Florida Public Employee Council 79, AFSCME, AFL-CIO.

John S. Mills and Andrew D. Manko of The Mills Firm, P.A., Tallahassee, FL, for Amici Curiae Professors Neil Vidmar, Tom Baker, Ralph L. Brill, Martha Chamallas, Stephen Daniels, Thomas A. Eaton, Theodore Eisenberg, Marc Galanter, Valerie P. Hans, Edward J. Kionka, Thomas Koenig, Herbert Kritzer, Nancy S. Marder, Joanne Martin, Frank M. McClellan, Deborah Jones Merritt, James T. Richardson, and Michael L. Rustad.

Stephen N. Zack , President, American Bar Association, Chicago, IL; and Herman J. Russomanno , Robert J. Borrello , Herman J. Russomanno III, of Russomanno & Borrello P.A., Miami, FL, for Amicus Curiae The American Bar Association.

George S. Christian , Austin, TX, for Amicus Curiae Texas Civil Justice League.


This case is before the Court to answer four questions of Florida law certified by the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit that are determinative of a cause pending in that court and for which there appears to be no controlling precedent. We have jurisdiction. Art. V, § 3(b)(6), Fla. Const. In Estate of McCall v. United States, 642 F.3d 944 (11th Cir. 2011), the Eleventh Circuit certified...

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