KADEL v. FOLWELL

No. 22-1721, No. 22-1927.

100 F.4th 122 (2024)

Maxwell KADEL; Jason Fleck; Connor Thonen-Fleck; Julia McKeown; Michael D. Bunting, Jr.; C.B., by his next friends and parents; Sam Silvaine; Dana Caraway, Plaintiffs-Appellees, v. Dale FOLWELL, in his official capacity as State Treasurer of North Carolina; Executive Administrator of the North Carolina State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees, Defendants-Appellants, and North Carolina State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees; State of North Carolina Department of Public Safety, Defendants. Commonwealth of Kentucky; Commonwealth of Virginia; State of Alabama; State of Alaska; State of Arkansas; State of Florida; State of Georgia; State of Indiana; State of Iowa; State of Kansas; State of Louisiana; State of Mississippi; State of Missouri; State of Montana; State of Nebraska; State of North Dakota; State of Ohio; State of Oklahoma; State of South Carolina; State of Texas; State of Utah, Amicus Supporting Appellants. New York; California; Colorado; Delaware; Hawaii; Illinois; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Minnesota; Nevada; New Jersey; New Mexico; Oregon; Rhode Island; Vermont; Washington; District of Columbia; Constitutional Law Professors; American Medical Association; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; American Psychiatric Association; American Academy of Pediatrics; Endocrine Society; North American Society For Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology; National Association of Nurse Practitioners in Women's Health; Society of OB/GYN Hospitalists, Amici Supporting Appellees. Shauntae Anderson, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, Plaintiffs-Appellees, v. William Crouch, in his official capacity as Cabinet Secretary of the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources; Cynthia Beane, in her official capacity as Commissioner for the West Virginia Bureau for Medical Services; West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Medical Services, Defendants-Appellants. State of West Virginia; Commonwealth of Kentucky; Commonwealth of Virginia; State of Alabama; State of Alaska; State of Arkansas; State of Florida; State of Georgia; State of Indiana; State of Iowa; State of Kansas; State of Louisiana; State of Mississippi; State of Missouri; State of Montana; State of Nebraska; State of North Dakota; State of Ohio; State of Oklahoma; State of South Carolina; State of Texas; State of Utah, Amicus Supporting Appellants, Colorado; Delaware; District of Columbia; Fairness West Virginia; Mountain State Justice, Inc.; National Health Law Program; Center for Medicare Advocacy; Constitutional Law Professors; American Medical Association; Endocrine Society; National Association of Nurse Practitioners in Women's Health; American Psychiatric Association; Society of OB/GYN Hospitalists; Illinois; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Minnesota; Nevada; New Jersey; New Mexico; New York; Oregon; Rhode Island; Vermont; Washington, Amici Supporting Appellees.

United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit.

Decided: April 29, 2024.


Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

No. 22-1721. ARGUED: John Guyton Knepper , LAW OFFICE OF JOHN G. KNEPPER, LLC, Cheyenne, Wyoming, for Appellants. Tara Lynn Borelli , LAMBDA LEGAL DEFENSE & EDUCATION FUND, INC., Decatur, Georgia, for Appellees. ON BRIEF: Kevin G. Williams , Mark A. Jones , BELL, DAVIS & PITT, P.A., Winston-Salem, North Carolina, for Appellants. Amy E. Richardson , Lauren E. Snyder , HWG LLP, Washington, D.C.; Michael W. Weaver , Chicago, Illinois, Dmitriy G. Tishyevich , Warren Haskel , McDERMOTT WILL & EMERY, New York, New York; Carl S. Charles , Decatur, Georgia, Omar Gonzalez-Pagan , LAMBDA LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATION FUND, INC., New York, New York; David P. Brown , Ezra Cukor , TRANSGENDER LEGAL DEFENSE & EDUCATION FUND, INC., New York, New York, for Appellees. Howard S. Suskin , Chicago, Illinois, Matthew D. Cipolla , New York, New York, Illyana A. Green , Christina M. Isnardi , JENNER & BLOCK LLP, Washington, D.C.; Shana L. Fulton , Sarah M. Saint , BROOKS PIERCE McLENDON HUMPHREY & LEONARD, LLP, Greensboro, North Carolina, for Amici American Medical Association and Seven Additional Health Care Organizations. Katie R. Eyer , RUTGERS LAW SCHOOL, Camden, New Jersey; Andrew Barr , Denver, Colorado, Kathleen Hartnett , COOLEY LLP, San Francisco, California, for Amici Constitutional Law Professors. Letitia James , Attorney General, Barbara D. Underwood , Solicitor General, Ester Murdukhayeva , Deputy Solicitor General, Daniel S. Magy , Assistant Solicitor General, Andrea W. Trento , Assistant Solicitor General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEW YORK, New York, New York, for Amicus State of New York. Rob Bonta , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF CALIFORNIA, Sacramento, California, for Amicus State of California. Philip J. Weiser , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF COLORADO, Denver, Colorado, for Amicus State of Colorado. Kathleen Jennings , Attorney General, DELAWARE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, Wilmington, Delaware, for Amicus State of Delaware. Holly T. Shikada , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF HAWAI'I, Honolulu, Hawai'i, for Amicus State of Hawai'i. Kwame Raoul , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ILLINOIS, Chicago, Illinois, for Amicus State of Illinois. Aaron M. Frey , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MAINE, Augusta, Maine, for Amicus State of Maine. Brian E. Frosh , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MARYLAND, Baltimore, Maryland, for Amicus State of Maryland. Maura Healey , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MASSACHUSETTS, Boston, Massachusetts, for Amicus Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Keith Ellison , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MINNESOTA, St. Paul, Minnesota, for Amicus State of Minnesota. Aaron D. Ford , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEVADA, Carson City, Nevada, for Amicus State of Nevada. Matthew J. Platkin , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEW JERSEY, Trenton, New Jersey, for Amicus State of New Jersey. Hector Balderas , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, New Mexico, for Amicus State of New Mexico. Ellen F. Rosenblum , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF OREGON, Salem, Oregon, for Amicus State of Oregon. Peter F. Neronha , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF RHODE ISLAND, Providence, Rhode Island, for Amicus State of Rhode Island. Susanne R. Young , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF VERMONT, Montpelier, Vermont, for Amicus State of Vermont. Robert W. Ferguson , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON, Olympia, Washington, for Amicus State of Washington. Karl A. Racine , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington, D.C., for Amicus District of Columbia. Andrew Bailey , Attorney General, Joshua M. Divine , Solicitor General, Kenneth C. Capps , Assistant Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MISSOURI, Jefferson City, Missouri, for Amicus State of Missouri. Steve Marshall , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ALABAMA, Montgomery, Alabama, for Amicus State of Alabama. Treg Taylor , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ALASKA, Anchorage, Alaska, for Amicus State of Alaska. Tim Griffin , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ARKANSAS, Little Rock, Arkansas, for Amicus State of Arkansas. Ashley Moody , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF FLORIDA, Tallahassee, Florida, for Amicus State of Florida. Christopher M. Carr , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF GEORGIA, Atlanta, Georgia, for Amicus State of Georgia. Theodore E. Rokita , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIANA, Indianapolis, Indiana, for Amicus State of Indiana. Brenna Bird , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF IOWA, Des Moines, Iowa, for Amicus State of Iowa. Kris W. Kobach , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF KANSAS, Topeka, Kansas, for Amicus State of Kansas. Daniel Cameron , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF KENTUCKY, Frankfort, Kentucky, for Amicus Commonwealth of Kentucky. Jeff Landry , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF LOUISIANA, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, for Amicus State of Louisiana. Lynn Fitch , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MISSISSIPPI, Jackson, Mississippi, for Amicus State of Mississippi. Austin Knudsen , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MONTANA, Helena, Montana, for Amicus State of Montana. Michael T. Hilgers , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEBRASKA, Lincoln, Nebraska, for Amicus State of Nebraska. Drew H. Wrigley , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NORTH DAKOTA, Bismarck, North Dakota, for Amicus State of North Dakota. Dave Yost , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF OHIO, Columbus, Ohio, for Amicus State of Ohio. Gentner Drummond , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF OKLAHOMA, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, for Amicus State of Oklahoma. Alan Wilson , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Columbia, South Carolina, for Amicus State of South Carolina. Ken Paxton , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF TEXAS, Austin, Texas, for Amicus State of Texas. Sean D. Reyes , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF UTAH, Salt Lake City, Utah, for Amicus State of Utah. Jason S. Miyares , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF VIRGINIA, Richmond, Virginia, for Amicus Commonwealth of Virginia.

No. 22-1927. ARGUED: Michael Ray Williams, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WEST VIRGINIA, Charleston, West Virginia, for Amicus Curiae. Caleb David , SHUMAN McCUSKEY SLICER PLLC, Charleston, West Virginia, for Appellants. Tara Lynn Borelli , LAMBDA LEGAL DEFENSE & EDUCATION FUND, INC., Decatur, Georgia; Anna Purna Prakash , NICHOLAS KASTER, LLP, Minneapolis, Minnesota, for Appellees. ON BRIEF: Kimberly M. Bandy , Lou Ann S. Cyrus , Roberta F. Green , SHUMAN McCUSKEY SLICER PLLC, Charleston, West Virginia, for Appellants. Avatara Smith-Carrington , Washington, D.C., Carl Charles , Decatur, Georgia, Nora Huppert , LAMBDA LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATION FUND, INC., Chicago, Illinois; Nichole J. Schladt , NICHOLS KASTER, PLLP, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Walt Auvil , THE EMPLOYMENT LAW CENTER, PLLC, Parkersburg, West Virginia, for Appellees. Patrick Morrisey , Attorney General, Lindsay S. See , Solicitor General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WEST VIRGINIA, Charleston, West Virginia, for Amicus State of West Virginia. Howard S. Suskin , Lillian M. McGuire , Chicago, Illinois, Matthew D. Cipolla , New York, New York, Christina M. Isnardi , JENNER & BLOCK LLP, Washington, D.C.; Shana L. Fulton , Sarah M. Saint , BROOKS HUMPHREY McLENDON HUMPHREY & LEONARD, LLP, Greensboro, North Carolina, for Amici American Medical Association and Four Additional Health Care Organizations. Jah Akande , Alicia M. Penn , Evan X. Tucker , McGUIREWOODS LLP, Richmond, Virginia, for Amici Fairness West Virginia and Mountain State Justice, Inc. Letitia James , Attorney General, Barbara D. Underwood , Solicitor General, Ester Murdukhayeva , Deputy Solicitor General, Daniel S. Magy , Assistant Solicitor General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEW YORK, New York, New York, for Amicus State of New York. Philip J. Weiser , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF COLORADO, Denver, Colorado, for Amicus State of Colorado. Kathleen Jennings , Attorney General, DELAWARE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, Wilmington, Delaware, for Amicus State of Delaware. Kwame Raoul , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ILLINOIS, Chicago, Illinois, for Amicus State of Illinois. Aaron M. Frey , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MAINE, Augusta, Maine, for Amicus State of Maine. Brian E. Frosh , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MARYLAND, Baltimore, Maryland, for Amicus State of Maryland. Maura Healey , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MASSACHUSETTS, Boston, Massachusetts, for Amicus Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Keith Ellison , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MINNESOTA, St. Paul, Minnesota, for Amicus State of Minnesota. Aaron D. Ford , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEVADA, Carson City, Nevada, for Amicus State of Nevada. Matthew J. Platkin , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEW JERSEY, Trenton, New Jersey, for Amicus State of New Jersey. Hector Balderas , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, New Mexico, for Amicus State of New Mexico. Ellen F. Rosenblum , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF OREGON, Salem, Oregon, for Amicus State of Oregon. Peter F. Neronha , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF RHODE ISLAND, Providence, Rhode Island, for Amicus State of Rhode Island. Susanne R. Young , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF VERMONT, Montpelier, Vermont, for Amicus State of Vermont. Robert W. Ferguson , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON, Olympia, Washington, for Amicus State of Washington. Karl A. Racine , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington, D.C., for Amicus District of Columbia. Katie R. Eyer , RUTGERS LAW SCHOOL, Camden, New Jersey; Andrew Barr , Denver, Colorado, Kathleen Hartnett , COOLEY LLP, San Francisco, California, for Amici Constitutional Law Professors. Martha Jane Perkins , NATIONAL HEALTH LAW PROGRAM, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Alice Bers , Wey-Wey Kwok , CENTER FOR MEDICARE ADVOCACY, Willimantic, Connecticut, for Amici National Health Law Program and Center for Medicare Advocacy. Andrew Bailey , Attorney General, Joshua M. Divine , Solicitor General, Kenneth C. Capps , Assistant Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MISSOURI, Jefferson City, Missouri, for Amicus State of Missouri. Steve Marshall , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ALABAMA, Montgomery, Alabama, for Amicus State of Alabama. Treg Taylor , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ALASKA, Anchorage, Alaska, for Amicus State of Alaska. Tim Griffin , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ARKANSAS, Little Rock, Arkansas, for Amicus State of Arkansas. Ashley Moody , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF FLORIDA, Tallahassee, Florida, for Amicus State of Florida. Christopher M. Carr , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF GEORGIA, Atlanta, Georgia; Todd Rokita , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIANA, Indianapolis, Indiana, for Amicus State of Indiana. Brenna Bird , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF IOWA, Des Moines, Iowa, for Amicus State of Iowa. Kris W. Kobach , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF KANSAS, Topeka, Kansas, for Amicus State of Kansas. Daniel Cameron , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF KENTUCKY, Frankfort, Kentucky, for Amicus State of Kentucky. Jeff Landry , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF LOUISIANA, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, for Amicus State of Louisiana. Lynn Fitch , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MISSISSIPPI, Jackson, Mississippi, for Amicus State of Mississippi. Austin Knudsen , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MONTANA, Helena, Montana, for Amicus State of Montana. Michael T. Hilgers , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEBRASKA, Lincoln, Nebraska, for Amicus State of Nebraska. Drew H. Wrigley , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NORTH DAKOTA, Bismarck, North Dakota, for Amicus State of North Dakota. Dave Yost , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF OHIO, Columbus, Ohio, for Amicus State of Ohio. Gentner Drummond , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF OKLAHOMA, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, for Amicus State of Oklahoma. Alan Wilson , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Columbia, South Carolina, for Amicus State of South Carolina. Ken Paxton , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF TEXAS, Austin, Texas, for Amicus State of Texas. Sean D. Reyes , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF UTAH, Salt Lake City, Utah, for Amicus State of Utah. Jason S. Miyares , Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF VIRGINIA, Richmond, Virginia, for Amicus Commonwealth of Virginia.

Affirmed by published opinion. Judge Gregory wrote the opinion, in which Chief Judge Diaz, Judge King, Judge Wynn, Judge Thacker, Judge Harris, Judge Heytens, and Judge Benjamin joined. Judge Richardson wrote a dissenting opinion, in which Judge Wilkinson, Judge Niemeyer, Judge Quattlebaum joined, and in which Judge Agee and Judge Rushing joined except for part II.A.3. Judge Wilkinson wrote a dissenting opinion. Judge Quattlebaum wrote a dissenting opinion, in which Judge Agee, Judge Richardson, and Judge Rushing joined.


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