No. 22-2289.

81 F.4th 323 (2023)

WINN-DIXIE STORES, INC.; Bi-Lo Holdings, LLC, Appellants v. EASTERN MUSHROOM MARKETING COOPERATIVE, INC.; Robert A. Feranto, Jr., T/A Bella Mushroom Farms; Brownstone Mushroom Farms, Inc.; To-Jo Fresh Mushrooms, Inc.; Cardile Mushrooms, Inc.; Cardile Bros. Mushrooms Packaging; Country Fresh Mushroom Co.; Forest Mushroom, Inc.; Franklin Farms, Inc.; Gino Gaspari & Sons, Inc.; Gaspari Bros. Inc.; Giorgi Mushroom Company; Giorgio Foods, Inc.; Kaolin Mushroom Farms, Inc.; South Mill Mushroom Sales, Inc.; LRP Mushrooms Inc.; LRP-M Mushrooms LLC; Leone Pizzini and Son, Inc.; Modern Mushrooms Farms, Inc.; Sher-Rockee Mushroom Farm; C & C Carriage Mushroom Co.; Oakshire Mushroom Farm, Inc.; Phillips Mushroom Farms, Inc.; Harvest Fresh Farms, Inc.; Louis M. Marson, Jr., Inc.; Mario Cutone Mushroom Co., Inc.; M.D. Basciani & Sons, Inc.; Monterey Mushrooms, Inc.; Masha & Toto, Inc., T/a M&T Mushrooms; W & P Mushroom, Inc.; Mushroom Alliance, Inc.; Creekside Mushrooms Ltd; J-M Farms, Inc.; United Mushroom Farms Cooperative, Inc.; John Pia; Michael Pia.

United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit.

Opinion filed: August 28, 2023.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Patrick J. Ahern [ARGUED], Ahern & Associates, 590 N Sheridan Road, Lake Forest, IL 60045, Counsel for Appellants.

William A. DeStefano [ARGUED], Saxton & Stump, 100 Deerfield Lane, Suite 240, Malvern, PA 19355, Terri A. Pawelski , Saxton & Stump, 123 S Broad Street, Suite 2800, Philadelphia, PA 19109, Counsel for Appellee, Eastern Mushroom Marketing Cooperative, Inc.

Patrick J. Gallo, Jr. [ARGUED], Jane M. Shields , MacElree Harvey, 17 W Miner Street, P.O. Box 660, West Chester, PA 19382, Counsel for Appellee, United Mushroom Farms Cooperative, Inc.

Before: JORDAN, KRAUSE and BIBAS, Circuit Judges.


Not every agreement to restrain trade violates the antitrust laws. Because some cases are more obvious than others, the law has evolved to use different tests depending on the closeness of the question. At one end of the spectrum are arrangements that can be condemned as illegal per se, or—as...

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