No. 20-1031.

996 F.3d 243 (2021)

The COUNTY BOARD OF ARLINGTON COUNTY, VIRGINIA, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. EXPRESS SCRIPTS PHARMACY, INC.; ESI Mail Pharmacy Service, Inc., Defendants-Appellants, and Mallinckrodt PLC; Mallinckrodt LLC; SpecGx LLC; Endo Health Solutions Inc.; Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.; Par Pharmaceutical Companies, Inc.; Par Pharmaceutical, Inc.; Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; Cephalon, Inc.; Barr Laboratories, Inc.; Watson Laboratories, Inc.; Actavis Pharma, Inc.; Actavis, LLC; Allergan PLC; Allergan Finance, LLC; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Mylan Institutional Inc.; Indivior Inc.; McKesson Corporation; McKesson Medical-Surgical Inc.; Cardinal Health, Inc.; AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation; General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc.; Insource, Inc.; CVS Health Corporation; CVS Pharmacy, Inc.; CVS TN Distribution, L.L.C.; Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc.; Walgreen Co.; Walgreen Eastern Co., Inc.; Express Scripts Holding Company; Express Scripts, Inc.; Caremark Rx, L.L.C.; CaremarkPCS Health, L.L.C.; Caremark, L.L.C.; CaremarkPCS, L.L.C.; Unitedhealth Group Incorporated; Optum, Inc.; OptumRx, Inc.; Walmart, Inc.; Rite Aid Corp.; Rite Aid of Virginia, Inc.; Rite Aid Mid-Atlantic; Rite Aid of Maryland, Inc.; Eckerd Corporation; Does 1-100; Henry Schein, Inc., Defendants.

United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit.

Decided: May 3, 2021.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

ARGUED: Adriana Riviere-Badell , KOBRE & KIM LLP, Miami, Florida, for Appellants. R. Johan Conrod, Jr. , SANFORD HEISLER SHARP, LLP, Nashville, Tennessee, for Appellee. ON BRIEF: Matthew I. Menchel , Miami, Florida, Julian W. Park , KOBRE & KIM LLP, San Francisco, California, for Appellants. Grant Morris , Kevin Sharp , Andrew Miller , SANFORD HEISLER SHARP, LLP, Nashville, Tennessee; Joanne Cicala , THE CICALA LAW FIRM PLLC, Dripping Springs, Texas; W. Edgar Spivey , KAUFMAN & CANOLES, P.C., Norfolk, Virginia, for Appellee.

Reversed and remanded by published opinion. Judge Quattlebaum wrote the opinion, in which Judge Wilkinson and Judge Niemeyer joined.

This appeal involves the application of 28 U.S.C. § 1442(a)(1)—commonly referred to as the "federal officer removal statute"—to private actors. Under the statute, private actors can remove a case to federal court when they show that they: (1) acted under the direction of a federal officer; (2) possess...

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