No. 19-71979, No. 19-71982.

996 F.3d 673 (2021)

LEAGUE OF UNITED LATIN AMERICAN CITIZENS; Pesticide Action Network North America; Natural Resources Defense Council; California Rural Legal Assistance Foundation; Farmworkers Association of Florida; Farmworker Justice; Labor Council for Latin American Advancement; Learning Disabilities Association of America; National Hispanic Medical Association; Pineros y Campesinos Unidos del Noroeste; United Farm Workers; GreenLatinos, Petitioners, v. Michael S. REGAN, Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Respondents. State of New York; State of California; State of Washington; State of Maryland; State of Vermont; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Petitioners, District of Columbia; State of Hawaii; State of Oregon, Intervenors, v. Michael S. Regan, Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Respondents.

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit.

Filed April 29, 2021.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Patti A. Goldman (argued), Marisa C. Ordonia , and Kristen L. Boyles , Earthjustice, Seattle, Washington, for Petitioners League of United Latin American Citizens, Pesticide Action Network North America, Natural Resources Defense Council, California Rural Legal Assistance Foundation, Farmworkers Association of Florida, Farmworker Justice, Labor Council for Latin American Advancement, Learning Disabilities Association of America, National Hispanic Medical Association, Pineros y Campesinos Unidos del Noroeste, United Farm Workers, and GreenLatinos.

Frederick A. Brodie (argued), Assistant Solicitor General Of Counsel; Andrea Oser , Deputy Solicitor General; Barbara D. Underwood , Solicitor General; Letitia James , Attorney General; Office of the Attorney General, Albany, New York; Xavier Becerra , Attorney General; Christie Vosburg , Supervising Deputy Attorney General; Reed Sato , Deputy Attorney General; Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento, California; Robert W. Ferguson , Attorney General; William R. Sherman , Counsel for Environmental Protection; Attorney General's Office, Seattle, Washington; Brian E. Frosh , Attorney General; Steven M. Sullivan , Solicitor General; Joshua M. Segal , Special Assistant Attorney General; Office of the Attorney General, Baltimore, Maryland; Thomas J. Donovan Jr. , Attorney General; Nichols F. Persampieri , Assistant Attorney General; Office of the Attorney General, Montpelier, Vermont; Clare E. Connors , Attorney General; Wade H. Hargrove III , Deputy Attorney General; Department of the Attorney General, Honolulu, Hawaii; Ellen F. Rosenblum , Attorney General; Benjamin Gutman , Solicitor General; Office of the Attorney General, Salem, Oregon; Maura Healey , Attorney General; I. Andrew Goldberg , Assistant Attorney General; Environmental Protection Division, Office of the Attorney General, Boston, Massachusetts; Karl A. Racine , Attorney General; Loren L. Alikhan Solicitor General; Caroline S. Van Zile , Principal Deputy Solicitor General; Brian R. Caldwell , Assistant Attorney General, Public Integrity Unit; Office of the Attorney General, Washington, D.C.; for Petitioners States of New York, California, Washington, Maryland, Vermont, Hawaii, Oregon, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia.

Mark L. Walters (argued) and Jessica O'Donnell , Environmental Defense Section, United States Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.; Angela Huskey , Office of General Counsel, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.; for Respondents.

Shaun A. Goho , Emmett Environmental Law & Policy Clinic, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, for Amici Curiae American Academy of Pediatrics, Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments, American Public Health Association, Migrant Clinicians Network, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and Union of Concerned Scientists.

Edward Lloyd , Jacob Elkin , Claire MacLachlan , and Basil Oswald , Columbia Environmental Clinic, Morningside Heights Legal Services, New York, New York, for Amicus Curiae Congressman Henry Waxman.

Kathryn E. Szmuszkovicz and Andrew C. Stilton , Beveridge & Diamond P.C., Washington, D.C.; Rachel Lattimore , Senior Vice President & General Counsel; Ashley Boles , Counsel; CropLife America, Washington, D.C.; for Amicus Curiae CropLife America.

David Y. Chung , Kirsten L. Nathanson , and Elizabeth B. Dawson , Crowell & Moring LLP, Washington, D.C., for Amici Curiae Agribusiness Council of Indiana, Agricultural Retailers Association, American Farm Bureau Federation, AmericanHort, American Seed Trade Association, American Soybean Association, American Sugarbeet Growers Association, Beet Sugar Development Foundation, California Alfalfa and Forage Association, California Citrus Mutual, California Cotton Ginners and Growers Association, California Seed Association, California Specialty Crops Council, California Walnut Commission, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, National Agricultural Aviation Association, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Corn Growers Association, National Cotton Council, National Onion Association, National Sorghum Producers, North Dakota Grain Growers Association, Oregonians for Food and Shelter, Washington Friends of Farms & Forests, Western Agricultural Processors Association, Western Growers, and Western Plant Health Association.

Dissent by Judge Bybee.


This dispute concerning the documented health risks posed by a widely used pesticide, chlorpyrifos, has been before this Court more than a half-dozen times. The Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA" or the "Agency") has recognized that when pregnant mothers are exposed to chlorpyrifos residue, this likely...

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