Nos. 13-56706, 13-56755.

909 F.3d 252 (2018)

Alejandro RODRIGUEZ, for Himself and on Behalf of a Class of Similarly-Situated Individuals; Abdirizak Aden Farah, for Himself and on Behalf of a Class of Similarly-Situated Individuals; Jose Farias Cornejo; Yussuf Abdikadir; Abel Perez Ruelas, Petitioners-Appellees/Cross-Appellants, and Efren Orozco, Petitioner, v. David MARIN, Field Office Director, Los Angeles District, Immigration and Customs Enforcement; Kirstjen Nielsen, Secretary, Homeland Security; Matthew G. Whitaker, Acting Attorney General; Wesley Lee, Assistant Field Office Director, Immigration and Customs Enforcement; Rodney Penner, Captain, Mira Loma Detention Center; Sandra Hutchens, Sheriff of Orange County; Nguyen, Officer Officer-in-Charge, Theo Lacy Facility; Davis Nighswonger, Captain, Commander, Theo Lacy Facility; Mike Kreuger, Captain, Operations Manager, James A. Musick Facility; Arthur Edwards, Officer-in-Charge, Santa Ana City Jail; Russell Davis, Jail Administrator, Santa Ana City Jail; James McHenry, Director, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Respondents-Appellants Cross-Appellees.

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit.

Filed November 19, 2018.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Sarah Stevens Wilson (argued), Assistant United States Attorney; Erez Reuveni , Assistant Director; William C. Peachey , Director, District Court Section; Chad A. Readler , Acting Assistant Attorney General; Office of Immigration Litigation, Civil Division, United States Department of Justice, Birmingham, Alabama; for Respondents-Appellants/Cross-Appellees.

Ahilan Thevanesan Arulanantham , Michael Kaufman , and Peter Jay Eliasberg , ACLU Foundation of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Judy Rabinovitz and Michael K.T. Tan , ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project, New York, New York; Cecilia D. Wang , ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project, San Francisco, California; Jayashri Srikantiah , Stanford Law School Mills Legal Clinic, Stanford, California; Sean Ashley Commons , Wen Shen , and Sheri Porath Rockwell , Sidley Austin LLP, Los Angeles, California; Steven Andrew Ellis , Goodwin Procter LLP, Los Angeles, California, for Petitioners-Appellees/Cross-Appellants.

Nina Rabin , University of Arizona College of Law, Tucson, Arizona, for Amici Curiae Social Science Researchers and Professors.

James H. Moon , James J. Farrell , Nathan M. Saper , Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California, for Amici Curiae National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and the Judge David L. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law.

Sarah H. Paoletti , University of Pennsylvania Law School Transnational Legal Clinic, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for Amici Curiae International Law Professors and Human Rights Clinicians and Clinical Programs.

Holly Stafford Cooper , University of California Davis Law School Immigration Law Clinic, Davis, California, for Amicus Curiae University of California Davis Law School Immigration Law Clinic.

Max Carter-Oberstone and Samuel P. Siegel , Associate Deputy Solicitors General; Michael J. Mongan , Deputy Solicitor General; Janill L. Richards , Principal Deputy Solicitor General; Edward C. DuMont , Solicitor General; Xavier Becerra , Attorney General; Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento, California; George Jepsen , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, Hartford, Connecticut; Janet T. Mills , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, Augusta, Maine; Maura Healey , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, Boston, Massachusetts; Barbara D. Underwood , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, New York, New York; Ellen F. Rosenblum , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, Salem, Oregon; Peter F. Kilmartin , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, Providence, Rhode Island; Thomas J. Donovan Jr. , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, Montpelier, Vermont; Robert W. Ferguson , Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General, Olympia, Washington; for Amici Curiae States of California, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, and the District of Columbia.

Eugene M. Gelernter , Danielle C. Quinn , and Michael N. Fresco , Patterson Belknap Webb & Tyler LLP, New York, New York; Hardy Vieux , Human Rights First, Washington, D.C.; Eleni Bakst and Eleanor Acer , Human Rights First, New York, New York; Robyn Barnard , Human Rights First, Los Angeles, California; for Amicus Curiae Human Rights First.

David Lesser , Jessica Tsang , Adriel I. Cepeda Derieux , and Jamie Stephen Dycus , Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, New York, New York, for Amici Curiae Retired Immigration Judges and Board of Immigration Appeals Members.

Philip J. Levitz , Blake B. Hulnick , and Dennis B. Auerbach , Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, D.C.; Adam B. Cox and Robert A. Kinkler , Professor of Law. New York University School of Law, New York, New York; for Amici Curiae Professors of Constitutional, Immigration, and Administrative Law.

Elizabeth J. Cabraser , Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein LLP, San Francisco, California; Katherine I. McBride , Jason L. Lichtman , and Jonathan D. Selbin , Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein LLP, New York, New York; Andrew R. Kaufman , Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein LLP, Nashville, Tennessee; for Amici Curiae Administrative Law, Civil Procedure, and Federal Courts Professors.

Darren S. Teshima , Orrick Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP, San Francisco, California; Nina Rabin , Director, Immigrant Family Legal, Los Angeles, California; for Amici Curiae Scholars and Researchers in Sociology, Criminology, Anthropology, Psychology, Geography, Public Health, Medicine, Latin American. Studies, and Law.

Lawrence J. Joseph , Washington, D.C.; Christopher J. Hajec , Director of Litigation, Immigration Reform Law Institute, Washington, D.C.; for Amicus Curiae Immigration Reform Law Institute.

Before: Kim McLane Wardlaw and Ronald M. Gould, Circuit Judges, and Sam E. Haddon, District Judge.


In Jennings v. Rodriguez, ___ U.S. ___, 138 S.Ct. 830, 200 L.Ed.2d 122 (2018), the Supreme Court held that we misapplied the canon of constitutional avoidance to hold that certain immigration detention statutes, namely 8 U.S.C. §§ 1225(b), 1226(a), and 1226(c), implicitly contain a reasonableness determination after which due process concerns require that persons in prolonged mandatory detention are entitled...

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