TORRUELLA, Circuit Judge.
In October 2012, John Doe ("Doe") was accused of sexually assaulting a fellow Boston College student during an off-campus school event sponsored by a student organization. Pursuant to its written policies and procedures on sexual assault, out-lined in its 2012-2013 Student Guide (the "Student Guide"), and Conduct Board Procedure, Boston College held disciplinary proceedings against Doe. After two days of hearings, an Administrative Hearing Board (the "Board") found Doe responsible for the lesser offense of indecent assault and battery, and imposed several sanctions. Doe filed an appeal of the Board's decision, but his request for appeal was denied by Boston College officials. In 2014, at the request of Doe's parents, Boston College conducted an independent review of the disciplinary proceedings. The reviewer determined that the Board had properly followed the relevant procedures and that new evidence that Doe brought forth did not undercut the Board's finding.
Seeking compensatory damages, declaratory relief, a permanent injunction, and expungement of the disciplinary proceedings from his university records, Doe and his parents, James and Mary, (collectively "the Does") filed a lawsuit against Defendants Trustees of Boston College (the "University" or "B.C."), and several B.C. officials. Following discovery, the parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment. The district court held a hearing and subsequently entered summary judgment on all counts in the Defendants' favor. This timely appeal followed. After careful review, we vacate in part and affirm in part.
A. Factual History
1. The Alleged Sexual Assault
On October 20, 2012, Doe, a senior at Boston College, attended a school event on
The State Police arrested Doe based on the allegations made by A.B. to State Trooper David Walsh ("Trooper Walsh"). According to the October 20, 2012 Arrest Report, A.B. stated to Trooper Walsh that "while she was dancing she felt a hand go up he[r] dress and penetrate her." She further stated that "she immediately turned around and identified/looked at the person who touched her." While still at the pier, Trooper Walsh asked A.B. to step out of the police cruiser and identify the alleged wrongdoer. A.B. identified Doe as the person who touched her. Betsy, A.B.'s friend and dance partner during the school event, did not see the alleged sexual assault, but mentioned to the state authorities that A.B. told her "that the tall male with brunette hair [and] purple buttoned down shirt stuck his fingers in between her legs."
According to Doe, however, another male — Boston College senior "J.K." — crossed the dance floor in front of him as the alleged sexual assault occurred. Doe testified that, at the moment when A.B. screamed at him, J.K. turned to him and said, "Sorry, dude, that was my bad." The day after Doe's arrest, J.K. texted some of Doe's friends asking whether Doe was "ok" and if Doe "got in trouble."
2. The Criminal Case
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts filed an application for a criminal complaint against Doe, which the Boston Municipal Court issued on October 22, 2012. The complaint charged Doe with indecent assault and battery. He was arraigned that same day and pled not guilty. In February 2013, the tests of the samples taken from Doe's hand were completed, showing that Doe's hands were negative for traces of blood. The examiners did not test the samples for DNA, but preserved the swabs for possible DNA testing at a later date. During discovery, Doe produced a copy of the surveillance video from the ship that had been forensically enhanced and analyzed. In May 2014, the Commonwealth moved to dismiss the charges against Doe, and the court granted that motion.
3. 2012 University Disciplinary Proceedings
a. Boston College's Disciplinary Procedures
During the relevant time, B.C.'s written policy governing the investigation and adjudication of sexual assault accusations consisted of: (1) Section Four of the Student Guide (titled Community Standards and Policies); (2) Section Five of the Student Guide (titled Student Conduct System); and (3) the Conduct Board Procedure. The Office of the Dean of Students was tasked with "developing, disseminating, and upholding [the] behavioral standards that comprise the University Code
These documents provided certain rights to students facing disciplinary proceedings. These rights included "access to a process through which to resolve deprivations of rights" and "a fair procedure which [was] appropriate to the circumstances." In the case of accusations of sexual harassment, sexual assault, or sexual misconduct, the school conducted a pre-hearing investigation of the allegations, which included "a review of statements obtained from either party, interviews with the complainant and the accused (if identified), interviews with appropriate witnesses, and a review of other relevant information."
Pursuant to B.C.'s procedures, a disciplinary complaint with the school could have proceeded concurrently with any criminal action. Still, the Office of the Dean of Students could have also decided to stay the disciplinary proceedings while the criminal matter was ongoing. Furthermore, the Student Guide provided that a student may be summarily suspended for certain conduct, including sexual assault. A summary suspension would have been followed, within a reasonable time, by a conduct hearing.
After a complaint was filed against a student, that student would meet with the Dean of Students or its designee to discuss the complaint. During this meeting, the University would decide whether the complaint should "be kept open for a later resolution, dropped, resolved, or referred to an appropriate hearing board."
Boston College's policies also provided for the composition of the Administrative Hearing Boards. According to Section Five of the Student Guide, those boards were "composed of three administrators, one faculty member or academic administrator and one student." All board members were trained by the Office of the Dean of Students. The Dean of Students designated the board's chairperson, and all board members were required to "disclose any real or perceived conflict of interest between themselves and any party."
The Student Guide and Conduct Board Procedures also detailed the hearing procedure. During conduct hearings, both the complainant and the accused student could have an advisor with them.
Soon after the hearing, the board would meet in private to deliberate and "determine whether the accused [was] responsible or not for the charge(s), based upon a preponderance of the evidence." The board could have reached one of the following determinations: (1) responsible; (2) not responsible; (3) no finding; or (4) responsible for a lesser included charge. If the board concluded that an accused student was "responsible," it could recommend sanctions including suspension or dismissal from the University.
The University would then be required to send written notification of the board's determination to both parties within five days of the hearing. Either party could appeal the board's determination on two possible grounds: (1) demonstrated lack of fairness during the hearing; or (2) production of new evidence that would likely change the result of the hearing. Any appeal had to "be filed with the Dean [of Students] and the Vice President [for Student Affairs] within five business days after notification of the sanctions." The Dean of Students and the Vice President for Student Affairs would assess the appeal petition, and if they determined that it required consideration, it would be referred to the University's Appeals Board.
b. Disciplinary Proceeding Against Doe
On the night of the alleged sexual assault, a B.C. police officer completed a Sexual Assault Notification Form describing A.B.'s allegations against Doe. B.C. immediately placed Doe on summary suspension. Doe's case was assigned to then Senior Associate Dean of Students, Carole Hughes ("Hughes"), who decided that the case should proceed to an administrative hearing board that would be convened within two weeks. B.C.'s Associate General Counsel confirmed that the administrative hearing board would also act as the investigative body in Doe's case.
Hughes met with Doe and his parents on three occasions before the hearing. While the parties dispute whether Hughes allowed Doe to tell his version of the events during the first meeting, on October 24, 2012, they agree that Doe told Hughes on at least one occasion that he did not commit the alleged sexual assault, and that this was a case of mistaken identity. In that first meeting, Hughes informed Doe that he would be able to tell his account of the events to the hearing board. Doe was provided with the notice of the sexual assault charge and given the procedures for the investigation and hearing, but could only review — though not have a copy of — A.B.'s statement during these meetings.
Doe's hearing began on November 8, 2012. The Board was comprised of the chairperson, Catherine-Mary Rivera ("Rivera"), two other administrators, a law professor, and a student from the undergraduate program. The Board heard testimony from A.B., Doe, and three of Doe's friends who were on the ship on the night of the alleged sexual assault. A.B.'s testimony mirrored her prior statements. Doe denied having committed the sexual assault, produced the raw video surveillance from the dance floor of the ship, and testified about J.K.'s comment and subsequent text messages. Doe's friends testified that "they didn't see [Doe] bend down or do anything unusual."
The Board adjourned, and the hearing resumed on November 16, 2012. On that day, both Betsy and J.K. testified. J.K. and his father had previously met with Hughes, who informed J.K. that he was required to attend the hearing, but was
The Board deliberations took place at the end of the second day of hearings. The Board failed to reach a decision on that day, a Friday, and decided to continue deliberations the following week. Over the weekend, Rivera told Hughes that the Board "was struggling" to reach a decision, and that as a result, "they were [considering] the possibility of a no finding." Rivera then asked Hughes whether B.C. had ever issued a "no finding" determination before. Hughes, in turn, contacted Paul Chebator ("Chebator"), then Dean of Students, who told Hughes that while B.C. had issued "no finding" determinations in the past, he "discourage[d] them." Hughes conveyed this to Rivera prior to the Board's continuing deliberations on Monday, November 19.
On November 21, 2012, the Board found Doe responsible for the lesser offense of indecent assault and battery. Doe's sanctions included his immediate suspension until January 6, 2014, dismissal from Boston College student housing, and loss of senior week privileges. Doe promptly appealed the Board's decision, arguing a lack of due process and citing the Board's refusal to wait for the results of the forensic tests. Chebator and Patrick J. Keating ("Keating"), then Executive Vice President of B.C. and Interim Vice President for Student Affairs, with input from B.C.'s General Counsel, Joseph Herlihy ("Herlihy"), and Rivera, reviewed Doe's appeal and crafted a response denying his appeal. On December 7, 2012, B.C. notified Doe that his appeal had been denied.
4. 2014 B.C. Review
After serving his suspension, Doe returned to B.C. and graduated in May 2014. In September 2014, his parents, B.C. alumni themselves, wrote letters to B.C. President Father William Leahy ("Father Leahy") expressing their dissatisfaction with the 2012 disciplinary proceedings against Doe. In his letter, Doe's father stated that they had no "desire to file a lawsuit against [B.C.]" or any of the individuals who were involved in the 2012 disciplinary proceedings. In response, Father Leahy referred the Does to Barbara Jones ("Jones"), Vice President for Student Affairs, as "the right person at B.C. to review the case and make a recommendation" to the University's Executive Vice President on the matter.
After several communications with Doe's parents, Jones reviewed Doe's disciplinary proceedings to determine whether B.C. followed the adequate procedures, and whether there was new evidence that would change the outcome. Jones determined that B.C. had appropriately followed its procedures, which were "consistent with best practices in higher education," and that the new evidence the Does had brought forth in their communications to Father Leahy and Jones — an enhanced
B. Procedural History
The Does initiated this action on March 11, 2015, claiming: (1) breach of contract for the 2012 disciplinary proceedings; (2) promissory estoppel; (3) breach of contract for the subsequent 2014 review; (4) breach of B.C.'s common law duty to ensure Doe's disciplinary process was conducted with basic fairness; (5) Title IX violations; (6) negligence; (7) negligent infliction of emotional distress; (8) intentional infliction of emotional distress; and (9) unjust enrichment. The Does requested declaratory relief that would, among other things, expunge the disciplinary proceedings from Doe's university records, a permanent injunction directing B.C. to comply with Title IX, and no less than three million dollars in compensatory damages. One year later, the Does moved to amend the complaint and add Herlihy as a new defendant.
All parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment. The Does moved for partial summary judgment on the claims for breach of contract for the 2012 disciplinary proceedings and breach of common law duty of basic fairness. B.C. and the individual defendants moved for summary judgment on all claims. After a hearing, the district court denied the Does' motion for partial summary judgment and granted both B.C.'s and the individual defendants' motions for summary judgment.
Standard of Review
Summary judgment is only proper when "there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(a). A fact is material when it has potential of changing a case's outcome.
The Does raise a number of challenges to the district court's grant of summary judgment on all their claims in favor of B.C. and the individual defendants. Let's begin.
A. The Does' Breach of Contract Claim for 2012 the Disciplinary Proceedings
In reviewing a student's breach of contract claim against his or her university, we employ a reasonable expectations standard in interpreting the relevant contracts.
Below, the Does pointed to fifteen instances when B.C. allegedly breached the terms of their contractual agreement
1. Threshold Investigation
The Does first argue that pursuant to the Student Guide, B.C. was required to conduct a threshold investigation to discuss the complaint with Doe and, based on that discussion, decide on how to proceed with the complaint. The Does claim that Hughes's actions during their three meetings, where she failed to listen to Doe's account of the alleged sexual assault, and her decision to proceed with a disciplinary hearing even before meeting with Doe, breached the contract and prejudiced Doe. The Does' contention, however, is unpersuasive.
A complete reading of the Student Guide clarifies this issue. The Does point to language in Section Five that provides "[a] student who has had a complaint lodged against him ... will be called by the Dean of Students or designee to discuss the complaint." From there, the document continues, "the case may be kept open for later resolution, dropped, resolved or referred to an appropriate hearing board as determined by the Dean." However, Section Five of the Student Guide does not
2. Appropriateness of the Investigation
The Does also argue that B.C. breached its contract by failing to conduct the required investigation of the alleged sexual assault. The Does' argument here is two-fold. First, they claim that B.C. "should have `reasonably expected' a student to believe that allegations of sexual assault would be investigated by the [B.C.] Police before the University brought any charges against an accused student." They point to subsection five of Section Four of the Student Guide which states that "[t]he Boston College Police [will] work cooperatively with the Office of the Dean of Students to investigate and resolve cases under this policy." According to the Does, it was the B.C. Police, who are trained to respond to sexual assault complaints, who were procedurally required to conduct an investigation after the "threshold evaluation." Alternatively, the Does contend that the language regarding the role of B.C. Police in the sexual assault procedures is at the very least ambiguous and summary judgment on this issue was improper. Secondly, the Does assert that there was no appropriate investigation because the Board could not be considered an adequate investigatory body in compliance with the terms of the Student Guide. The Board, the Does continue, lacked investigatory training and failed to wait for critical evidence.
"In interpreting contractual language, we consider the contract as a whole. Its meaning `cannot be delineated by isolating words and interpreting them as though they stood alone.'"
The Does' second theory does not fare well either. Pursuant to the Student Guide, "[c]omplaints of sexual harassment... against a student member of the University community will be investigated and adjudicated in accordance with the Student Conduct System policies and procedures, as described in Section [Five]." In turn, Section Five states that the "function of the [disciplinary] proceedings is to
Lastly, the Does' contention that the Board lacked investigatory training and that it failed to wait for critical evidence is also unconvincing. The Student Guide did not require Administrative Hearing Board members to have any particular investigatory training in order to be part of the Board. Board members are, however, "trained by the Office of the Dean of Students" and the record shows that all members in the case at hand received this training before Doe's 2012 disciplinary proceedings. And, the Student Guide did not require the Board to wait for all evidence to become available before it could consider a disciplinary case and reach a decision. The Board here, however, considered that possibility and asked Doe and his advisor when the additional evidence would become available. Neither Doe nor his advisor could provide a definitive answer. In the end, the record shows that the results of the forensic tests did not become available until February 2013. If the Board had decided to wait for the alleged critical evidence, the delay could have caused B.C. to breach its contractual obligation to "resolve the complaint within [sixty] days." Therefore, the Board's refusal to wait for the results of the forensic tests and an enhanced surveillance video
3. Appropriateness of the Hearing Date
Next, the Does contend that B.C. breached its obligation to ensure that Doe had adequate time to prepare a response to the charges when Hughes decided that the case needed to be resolved quickly and rejected James's request for a stay of the University disciplinary proceedings while the criminal case was still ongoing. The Does argue that the district court's decision — that B.C. had ultimate discretion on whether or not to stay the proceedings — is incorrect, because while the language of the procedures states that the Dean "may" stay the process, that language has to be read in conjunction with B.C.'s other contractual obligations, which are to provide
We disagree. One more time the Student Guide's language is dispositive. In relevant part Section Four of the Student Guide provides that when a complaint is filed "[t]he University will promptly conduct an investigation of the alleged incident ... [and] make every reasonable effort to resolve the complaint within [sixty] days." Therefore, a student facing a complaint could reasonably expect that any disciplinary hearing would take place within those sixty days. And this reasonable expectation is not truncated by B.C.'s other contractual obligations to provide due process and fundamental fairness since Doe had written notice of the charges, opportunity to discuss the charges with counsel and have counsel present as an advisor during the disciplinary proceedings, and enough time to present witnesses.
The same goes with the Does' argument regarding B.C.'s refusal to stay University disciplinary proceedings while Doe's criminal case was still pending. While the Student Guide provides to the Dean of Students the possibility of staying Boston College's disciplinary process "if a student is summarily suspended and the criminal matter remains open," "the university conduct process will normally proceed while the criminal action is in process." Accordingly, B.C. did not breach the contract by pursuing to resolve the complaint filed against Doe within sixty days and concurrently to the criminal case, as provided in the Student Guide.
4. Board Members' Impartiality
The Student Guide requires that Administrative Hearing Board members "disclose any real or perceived conflict of interest between themselves and any party and may not hear a case if they are not able to be impartial in the hearing of the case." The Does claim that B.C. breached its contract because the Board was not impartial, mainly due to certain actions by the Board's chair, Rivera.
The Does contend that the district court erred when it made improper factfinding and credibility determinations when it decided that Rivera was not biased towards Doe, rejecting the evidence provided as "subjective impressions." They argue that this is contrary to
The Does do not meet their burden of proof. We have recognized before that observations about a defendant's tone based on perception are not mere speculation, "so long as they are grounded in personal... experiences."
According to the Does, Rivera acted with an attitude towards Doe and asked questions to either him or his witnesses that Doe would qualify as "cross-examination," while subjecting other witnesses to only "softball" questions. Still, considering Rivera's role as the chairperson of the Board, in charge of managing the flow of the hearing and leading the questioning of the witnesses, the Does statements, without more, are not legally sufficient to overcome the Board's impartiality presumption, particularly when an examination of the record fails to reveal any other evidence of bias showing that the Board was either prejudiced or partial against Doe.
5. Adequacy of the Board's Training
As briefly mentioned before, the Student Guide also provides that "[a]ll board members [of an Administrative Hearing Board] are trained by the Office of the Dean of Students. Chairpersons for the Administrative Hearing Board are designated by the Dean of Students and receive additional training." As the district court correctly held, under the reasonable expectations standard, "a student would accord to this contractual provision ... that members of any university hearing board would not only receive training but that training would be adequate to resolve the disputes that came before those members."
The Does contend that B.C. breached this contract requirement by failing to ensure that the Board members were properly trained. The Does rely on Chebator's awareness of a report issued by B.C. on April 23, 2012, which concluded that B.C.'s sexual assault trainings for Hearing Board members were insufficient according to "best practices." According to the Does, this alleged admission and the lack of any
We, however, disagree. The record before us does provide evidence that B.C. took remedial steps in response to the April 23, 2012 report. Chebator testified that in response to the report, B.C. "ramp[ed] up the training for individuals who would be hearing sexual assault cases" by developing "a secondary training for those individuals who would be sitting on administrative hearing boards involving sexual assault matters." And, as discussed above, the record also shows that all Board members in the case at hand received this training before Doe's 2012 disciplinary proceedings, and after the remedial steps were implemented.
6. Interference with the Board
The Does posit that pursuant to the Student Guide, B.C. was required to ensure the independence and integrity of the Board's deliberations without outside interference. Specifically, the Does point to the Student Guide's requirement that the Board meet "in private" and that its final decision be impartial. The Does argue that B.C. breached this commitment when Hughes transmitted Chebator's discouragement of a "no finding" result to Rivera during the weekend between the Board's two deliberation sessions. That interference, they argue, were it to have happened during court proceedings, would be "deemed presumptively prejudicial."
Boston College, on the other hand, argues that the Board's independence was not compromised. Regarding Hughes's relaying of Chebator's "discouragement" remark, B.C. states that there is no evidence that the Board was influenced in any way by this comment. In B.C.'s view, Chebator's comment was not a suggestion that the Board should make a finding of "responsible," but merely that it would be better if the Board made some finding.
A review of the record reveals that summary judgment on this issue was inappropriate. Let's briefly recap Chebator's indirect interaction with Rivera, the designated chairperson of the Board.
On Friday, soon after completing the second day of hearings in Doe's case, the Board began deliberations. However, by the end of the day the Board had not reached a result. At around 10:48p.m., Rivera responded to an email from Hughes inquiring about the status of the Board's deliberations. In her email, Hughes had asked if she should assume that the Board had not reached a result. Rivera replied, "Yes you can say that. We def [sic] won't
Over the weekend,
While none of the other Board members recall hearing about Chebator's comment, the parties do not dispute that the comment reached Rivera before the second day of deliberations.
At the summary judgment stage, a trial court is to make legal determinations rather than involve itself in factfinding.
Whether or not Rivera's communications with B.C. administrators, while deliberations where still ongoing, inappropriately interfered with the Board's decision on the sexual assault complaint against Doe, and breached Doe's reasonable expectation that the Board would meet in private, is a material fact with regard to the Does' breach of contract claim. Because a reasonable jury could resolve this dispute in favor of the Does, the dispute is genuine and summary judgment inappropriate.
b. Alternative Culprit Defense
The Does also argue that the district court erred when it allegedly disregarded
Just like it is reasonable for a student to expect that a school's basic fairness guarantee excludes outside influences in the Board's deliberations, it is also reasonable for a student to expect that a basic fairness guarantee excludes having an associate Dean of Students request Board members to give special treatment to the prime alternative culprit in a case in which the key defense is that someone other than the accused student committed the alleged sexual assault. On Sunday, November 11, 2012, after the first day of Doe's disciplinary hearing, Hughes emailed a summary of several steps taken as to Doe's case to Herlihy and a subordinate employee from B.C.'s Office of the Dean of Students. Regarding J.K., Hughes wrote: "I was very clear with J.K. that he was coming as a witness and was not being charged with anything. I think it might be good to talk to [Rivera] about how the [B]oard might also put him at ease." The phrase "at ease" may encompass many accommodations, and that phrase is nowhere defined in the summary judgment record.
Doe's disciplinary hearing continued on November 16, 2012, (the day in which J.K. testified). Whether or not Hughes's directive to her subordinate about talking to Rivera on how the Board might put J.K. at ease breached Doe's reasonable expectation that B.C. would provide him "a fair procedure" is, on this opaque record, a material fact with regard to the Does' breach of contract claim that should be resolved by the jury. We therefore vacate the district court's grant of summary judgment on the Does' breach of contract claim for the 2012 disciplinary proceeding and remand for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.
B. Basic Fairness Claim
Next, the Does bring forth a basic fairness claim in which they argue that B.C.'s alleged breaches of contract, either all together or any one of them independently, breached B.C.'s obligation to provide a fundamentally fair disciplinary process to Doe. The Does contend that B.C.'s basic fairness obligation is rooted in two independent sources: (1) the Student Guide itself, which provides that B.C.'s disciplinary process "exists to protect the rights of the Boston College community and assure fundamental fairness to complainants and to students accused of any breach of the University Code of Student Conduct," and (2) an independent duty to conduct disciplinary procedures with basic fairness imposed by Massachusetts law.
We agree with the Does that the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealings imposed on every contract by Massachusetts law, applied in the context of school disciplinary proceedings, creates an independent duty to provide basic fairness.
The district court's grant of summary judgment on the Does' claim for basic fairness rested on its analysis as to the Does' breach of contract claim.
C. The Does' Breach of Contract Claim for the 2014 Review
In their complaint, the Does allege that the written communications they exchanged with Father Leahy in 2014 (two letters sent by Doe's parents and a couple of e-mails exchanged between James and Father Leahy) formed a binding contract between B.C. and the Does, which required B.C. to conduct an independent review of the 2012 disciplinary proceedings. They allege that B.C. breached this contract because the 2014 review was "anything but" independent.
The Does contend that these communications satisfied all the elements of a valid contract. That is, that there was an offer, acceptance, and consideration, resulting in each party having obligations. In exchange for Father Leahy's offer for an independent review, the Does allege that they forbore the pursuit of legal action against B.C., serving as the consideration in the contract formation. Lastly, the Does point to Massachusetts case law to support their contention that a contract was formed, even though not all terms had been precisely identified.
Boston College counters that the Does' breach of contract claim for the 2014 review fails for two reasons. One, they argue that the aforementioned written exchange failed to meet the basic elements of contract formation, meaning there was no contract to be breached by B.C. In particular, they point to the lack of any manifest intention by Father Leahy to be bound by any particular terms of an agreement. Two, B.C. maintains that even if the Court were to assume that an enforceable contract existed, the Does cannot identify any specific failure or omissions by B.C. that would constitute a breach. B.C. contends that the Does' disagreement with Jones's conclusion in her review is not a triable issue of fact regarding a breach of any agreement.
"Although the question of contract formation is typically a question for the factfinder, and would thus be subject to clear error review, where `the evidentiary foundation for determining the formation of the parties' contract [is] either undisputed or consist[s] of writings,' contract formation is instead a question of law for the court."
The essential elements for the formation of a contract under Massachusetts law consist of an offer, acceptance, and consideration.
As to the element of consideration, "the contract must be a bargained-for exchange in which there is a legal detriment of the promisee or a corresponding benefit to the promisor."
Even with all reasonable inferences resolved in favor of the Does, we cannot conclude that their 2014 written communications with Father Leahy created a binding contract. A complete reading of the record validates our conclusion. It is true that James informed Father Leahy, though somewhat indirectly, that the Does were prepared to "file a lawsuit against [B.C.]," in order to correct the alleged injustice. Yet nothing in the record shows that the Does expressed any willingness to forego their right to file that lawsuit. While it is true that the forbearance of one's right to sue may be implied under certain circumstances,
Because there was no consideration, no enforceable contract was formed from the written communications between the Does and Father Leahy. Therefore, we affirm the district court's grant of summary judgment in favor of B.C. as to the Does' breach of contract claim for the 2014 review.
D. Title IX Claims
Next, the Does challenge the district court's summary judgment dismissal of their Title IX claims. In their complaint, the Does pursued Title IX discrimination claims for erroneous outcome based on gender bias and deliberate indifference. We consider them in turn.
1. Erroneous Outcome based on Gender Bias
Title IX provides that "[n]o person in the United States shall, on the basis
The Does argue that the record contains sufficient evidence to support their erroneous outcome claim that B.C.'s procedures were infected with gender bias.
Next, the Does maintain that gender bias played a role in B.C.'s procedures because B.C. administrators were influenced by outside pressure. Specifically, the Does point to pressure exerted by the U.S. Department of Education and its Office of Civil Rights's April 2011 "Dear Colleague" Letter, which tied federal funding for private colleges to their compliance with certain requirements for handling sexual harassment and sexual violence on their campuses.
On the other hand, B.C. contends that the Does' erroneous outcome claim fails because they have been unable to produce any evidence that would suggest gender bias by the B.C. administrators or any of the decision makers involved in Doe's disciplinary proceedings, or that the outcome of Doe's disciplinary proceeding was influenced by gender bias. Nor is there evidence that B.C. was influenced by external pressures. Therefore, gender bias could not have been a motivating factor in the disciplinary decision.
To succeed on their erroneous outcome claim, the Does must offer evidence (1) that would "cast some articulable doubt on the accuracy of the outcome of the disciplinary proceeding" and (2) show "gender bias was a motivating factor."
Even assuming that the Dean's interference with the Board's deliberations cast some articulable doubt on the out-come, none of the arguments put forth by the Does — or evidence which they point us to — tend to show that there was a causal connection between the outcome of Doe's disciplinary proceedings and gender bias. To show this causal link, the Does cannot merely rest on superficial assertions of discrimination, but must establish that "particular circumstances suggest that gender bias was a motivating factor."
First, we are unmoved by the Does' contention that B.C.'s procedures are infected with a systemic gender bias based
Secondly, while the Does may rely on circumstantial evidence alone to prove that there was a discriminatory pattern of decision-making,
Finally, the Does' argument that B.C. administrators were influenced by outside pressure, in particular the U.S. Department of Education's April 2011 "Dear Colleague" Letter, is both conclusory and meritless. The Does have not explained how the Dear Colleague Letter reflects or espouses gender bias. This necessarily dooms their argument that the Letter somehow infected the proceedings at issue here with gender bias. More than
Accordingly, we affirm the district court's grant of summary judgment in favor of B.C. as to the Does' Title IX erroneous outcome claim.
2. Deliberate Indifference
To succeed on a Title IX deliberate indifference claim, a plaintiff must show that an official with authority to implement corrective measures was aware of and deliberately indifferent to an act of discrimination on the basis of sex.
We need not delve too deeply into this issue since the Does' arguments here rely on their unsuccessful Title IX erroneous outcome claim. The Does contend that gender bias was a motivating factor in the outcome of Doe's disciplinary proceedings and then again during B.C.'s 2014 review, that this amounted to an act of sex discrimination, and that B.C. officials deliberately ignored it. Regarding Doe's disciplinary proceedings, the Does allege that Chebator knew back in 2012 that B.C.'s training of hearing boards was insufficient, and that deficiency was never corrected, meaning that he was aware that the Board in Doe's case was insufficiently trained. Concerning B.C.'s 2014 review, the Does argue that James and Mary's letters informed Father Leahy, Jones, and Herlihy, of the gender-biased misconduct in Doe's disciplinary proceedings, but that these B.C. officials, collectively and individually, decided not to address it.
While the Does successfully show that B.C. officials were on notice of their allegation that Doe's disciplinary proceedings produced an erroneous outcome because it was influenced by gender bias, the Does' Title IX deliberate indifference claim is unsuccessful. Their claim fails for the same reasons that we discussed above: they are unable show that any of the particular circumstances that allegedly contributed to an erroneous outcome were motivated by gender bias.
E. Negligence Claims
The Does also argue that the district court erred in dismissing their negligence claims and holding that neither B.C. nor any of the individual defendants owed them a duty of care. Under Massachusetts law, "[w]hether or not a duty of care existed is a question of law for the
The Does argued below that once the University placed Doe under the student disciplinary process, B.C. and the individual defendants owed Doe an independent duty to conduct such disciplinary process with due care. It is the Does' contention that B.C. voluntarily assumed this duty when it accepted federal funds and followed Title IX's regulations regarding sexual assault, which created the risk that Doe could be wrongfully branded as a perpetrator of sexual assault for the rest of his life.
We, however, do not find that B.C. or the individual defendants owed the Does any independent duty of care in this context. As explained earlier, in the context of school disciplinary hearings, the court's duty is to "review the procedures followed to ensure that they fall within the range of reasonable expectations of one reading the relevant rules."
When Massachusetts courts have recognized certain legal duties imposed on universities through their "voluntary assumption" of care, they have done so narrowly.
As to the individual defendants, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court has held that "[a]bsent a legal duty, there can be no personal liability."
Because we cannot find an independent duty outside of the contractual relationship between the Does, B.C., or the individual defendants, we affirm the district court's grant of summary judgment in favor of B.C. and the individual defendants on the Does' negligence claims.
F. Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress
The Does also contend that the district court erred when it dismissed their claims for negligent infliction of emotional distress. However, for the same reasons discussed above, this claim is a nonstarter. The SJC has summarized that the elements of negligent infliction of emotional distress include: "(1) negligence; (2) emotional distress; (3) causation; (4) physical harm manifested by objective symptomatology; and (5) that a reasonable person would have suffered emotional distress under the circumstances of the case."
For the foregoing reasons, we affirm the district court's grant of summary judgment in favor of B.C. as to the Does' (1) breach of contract claim for the 2014 review; (2) Title IX claims, (3) negligence, and (4) negligent infliction of emotional distress claims, and vacate the district court's grant of summary judgment as to the Does' (1) breach of contract claim for the 2012 disciplinary proceedings and (2) basic fairness claim. The case is remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.