Nos. 11-14535, 11-14675.

691 F.3d 1236 (2012)

HISPANIC INTEREST COALITION OF ALABAMA, AIDS Action Coalition, Huntsville International Help Center, Interpreters and Translators Association of Alabama, Alabama Appleseed Center for Law & Justice, Inc., Service Employees International Union, Southern Regional Joint Board of Workers United, United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, Local 1657 United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, Dreamactivist.org, Greater Birmingham Ministries, Boat People SOS, Matt Webster, Maria D. Ceja Zamora, Pamela Long, Juan Pablo Black Romero, Christopher Barton Thau, Ellin Jimmerson, Robert Barber, Daniel Upton, Jeffrey Allen Beck, Michelle Cummings, Esayas Haile, Fiseha Tesfamariam, Jane Doe, # 1, allowed by order [103], Jane Doe, # 2, allowed by order [103], Jane Doe, #3, allowed by order [103], Jane Doe, # 4, allowed by order [103], Jane Doe, #5, allowed by order [103], Jane Doe, # 6, allowed by order [103], John Doe, # 1, a minor, by his legal guardian Matt Webster, allowed by order [103], John Doe, # 2, allowed by order [103], John Doe, # 3, allowed by order [103], John Doe, # 4, allowed by order [103], John Doe, # 5, allowed by order [103], John Doe, #6, allowed by order [103], Plaintiffs-Appellants Cross Appellees, v. GOVERNOR OF ALABAMA, Attorney General, State of Alabama, Alabama State Superintendent of Education, Alabama Chancellor of Postsecondary Education, District Attorney for Madison County, Defendants-Appellees Cross Appellants, Superintendent of Huntsville City School System, et al., Defendants-Appellees, Central Alabama Fair Housing Center, Fair Housing Center of Northern Alabama, et al., Amicus Curiae.

United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit.

August 20, 2012.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Eric J. Artrip , Mastando & Artrip, LLC, Huntsville, AL, Mary Catherine Bauer , Samuel Jacob Brooke , Andrew Hess Turner , Southern Poverty Law Ctr., Ben Elton Bruner , The Bruner Law Firm, Montgomery, AL, Tanya Broder , Nat. Imm. Law Ctr., Oakland, CA, Shiu-Ming Cheer , Linton Joaquin , Melissa S. Keaney , Vivek Mittal , Karen Cassandra Tumlin , Nat. Imm. Law Ctr., Martha L. Gomez , Victor Viramontes , Mexican Am. Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Jessica Devlin Karp , Chris Newman, Nat. Day Laborer Organizing Network, Los Angeles, CA, Katherine Desormeau , Kenneth J. Sugarman , Cecillia D. Wang , ACLU Immigrant's Rights Project, Winifred V. Kao , Sin Yen Ling , Asian Law Caucus, San Francisco, CA, Lee P. Gelernt , Omar C. Jadwat , Elora Mukherjee , Andre I. Segura , ACLU, Michael K.T. Tan , ACLU Foundation, John Foster Maer , Ghita R. Schwarz , Diana S. Sen , LatinoJustice PRLDEF, New York City, Michelle Lapointe , Naomi R. Tsu , Daniel Werner , Southern Poverty Law Ctr., George Brian Spears , G. Brian Spears, PC, Atlanta, GA, Rebekah Keith McKinney , Herman Austin Watson, Jr. , Watson McKinney, LLP, Huntsville, AL, Allison Neal , Law Office of Allison Neal, El Paso, TX, Erin Emi Oshiro , Asian Am. Justice Ctr., Amy Pedersen , Mexican Am. Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Washington, DC, Nina Perales , Mexican Am. Legal Defense and Educational Fund, San Antonio, TX, Sigfredo Rubio , Rubio Law Firm PC, Birmingham, AL, for Plaintiff-Appellant Cross Appellee.

James W. Davis , Misty S. Fairbanks , Margaret L. Fleming , John Cowles Neiman, Jr. , William Glenn Parker, Jr. , Atty. Gen.'s Office, Montgomery, AL, for Defendant-Appellee Cross Appellant.

Before WILSON and MARTIN, Circuit Judges, and VOORHEES, District Judge.

WILSON, Circuit Judge:

This appeal presents the challenges of private plaintiffs to various provisions of Alabama's House Bill 56, the "Beason-Hammon Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act" (H.B. 56). Relevant to this appeal, the plaintiffs here (the HICA Plaintiffs) brought suit against defendants (the State Officials) contending that sections 8, 10, 11(a), 12(a), 13, 18, 27, 28, and 301

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