Nos. 1 CA-CV 20-0295, 1 CA-CV 20-0296, 1 CA-CV 20-0297 (Consolidated) No. 1 CA-CV 20-0295 1 CA-CV 20-0296, 1 CA-CV 20-0297.

525 P.3d 641 (2023)


Court of Appeals of Arizona, Division 1.

Filed February 7, 2023.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Arizona Center for Law in the Public Interest, Phoenix, By Jennifer B. Anderson 1, Daniel J. Adelman , Counsel for Appellants Defender of Wildlife, Donald Steuter, Jerry Van Gasse, Jim Vaaler

Fennemore Craig, P.C., Phoenix, By Sean Hood , Co-Counsel for Appellee Freeport Minerals Corporation

Snell & Wilmer L.L.P., Phoenix, By L. William Staudenmaier , Co-Counsel for Appellee Freeport Minerals Corporation

Salmon, Lewis & Weldon, P.L.C., Phoenix, By John B. Weldon, Jr. , Mark A. McGinnis , Counsel for Appellees Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District and Salt River Valley Water Users' Association

Engelman Berger, P.C., Phoenix, By William H. Anger , Co-Counsel for Appellee City of Mesa

Mesa City Attorney's Office, By Wilbert J. Taebel , Co-Counsel for Appellee City of Mesa

City of Phoenix, Office of the City Attorney, Phoenix, By Cris Meyer , Charles L. Cahoy , Counsel for Appellee City of Phoenix

Tempe City Attorney's Office, Tempe, By Judith R. Baumann , Megan H. Tracy , Counsel for the Appellee City of Tempe

Morisset, Schlosser, Jozwiak & Somerville APC, Seattle, Washington, By Thane D. Somerville , Counsel for Appellee Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community

Montgomery & Interpreter, PLC, Phoenix, By Susan B. Montgomery , Robyn L. Interpreter , Jay M. Tomkus , Counsel for Appellees Yavapai-Apache Nation and the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation

Office of General Counsel Gila River Indian Community, Sacaton, By Linus Everling , Thomas L. Murphy , Counsel for Appellee Gila River Indian Community

Perkins Coie LLP, Phoenix, By Matthew L. Rojas , Andrea J. Driggs , Karl J. Worsham , Counsel for Appellee Arizona Navigable Stream Adjudication Commission

The Sparks Law Firm, P.C., Scottsdale, By Joe P. Sparks , Laurel A. Herrmann , Counsel for Appellee San Carlos Apache Tribe

Gust Rosenfeld P.L.C., Phoenix, By Scott A. Malm , Counsel for Amicus Curiae Land Title Association of Arizona

Presiding Judge David B. Gass delivered the opinion of the court, in which Judge Michael J. Brown and Judge David D. Weinzweig joined.


¶1 The Arizona Navigable Stream Adjudication Commission (ANSAC) has resolved title for most of Arizona's rivers based on navigability, finding all but the mighty Colorado to be nonnavigable. Three rivers remain, the Verde, the Salt, and the Gila. This appeal promises to be the last step in the streambed litigation...

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