Nos. 03-1625, 03-1649, 03-1650, 03-1947.

407 F.3d 511 (2005)

UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. David VEGA MOLINA, Defendant, Appellant. United States of America, Appellee, v. Victor Manuel Villega-Angulo, A/K/A Guirio, Defendant, Appellant. United States of America, Appellee, v. Michelle Rodriguez-Matos, Defendant, Appellant. United States of America, Appellee, v. Juan Zuñiga-Bruno, Defendant, Appellant.

United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit.

Decided May 19, 2005.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Linda Backiel for appellant Vega Molina.

Elaine Mittleman for appellant Villega-Angulo.

José C. Romo Matienzo for appellant Rodríguez-Matos.

Joseph S. Berman, with whom Berman & Dowell was on brief, for appellant Zuñiga-Bruno.

Germán A. Rieckehoff, Assistant United States Attorney, with whom H.S. Garcia, United States Attorney, and Nelson Pérez-Sosa, Assistant United States Attorney (Senior Appellate Attorney), were on brief, for the United States.

Before SELYA, Circuit Judge, COFFIN, Senior Circuit Judge, and LIPEZ, Circuit Judge.

SELYA, Circuit Judge.

These appeals devolve from a violent robbery and hostage taking, which resulted in two murders and serious injury to a third victim. After a protracted trial, a jury convicted the four jointly tried defendants on all counts. Each of them received at least one life sentence.

On appeal, the defendants, ably represented, serve up a salmagundi of constitutional, statutory, and evidentiary arguments. Although we reject most of this asseverational...

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