Nos. 00-56603, 00-57197, 00-56628, 00-57195.

395 F.3d 932 (2002)

John DOE I, individually & as Administrator of the Estate of his deceased child Baby Doe I, & on behalf of all others similarly situated; Jane Doe I, on behalf of herself, as Administratrix of the Estate of her deceased child Baby Doe I, & on behalf of all others similarly situated; John Doe II; John Doe III; John Doe IV; John Doe V; Jane Doe II; Jane Doe III; John Doe VI; John Doe VII; John Doe VIII; John Doe IX; John Doe X; John Doe XI, on behalf of themselves & all others similarly situated & Louisa Benson on behalf of herself & the general public, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. UNOCAL CORPORATION, a California Corporation; Total S.A., a Foreign Corporation; John Imle, an individual; Roger C. Beach, an individual, Defendants-Appellees. John Roe III; John Roe VII; John Roe VIII; John Roe X, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. Unocal Corporation; Union Oil Company of California, Defendants-Appellees.

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit.

Filed September 18, 2002.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Paul L. Hoffman, Schonbrun, Desimome, Seplow, Harris & Hoffman LLP, Venice, CA; Dan Stormer and Anne Richardson, Hadsell & Stormer, Inc., Pasadena, CA; William Goodman, Jennifer M. Green, and Beth Stephens, Center for Constitutional Rights, New York, NY; Katharine J. Redford and Richard Herz, Earthrights International, Washington, DC; Judith Brown Chomsky, Elkins Park, PA; Julie Shapiro, Tacoma, WA; Dilan Esper, Stein & Flugge, LLP, Los Angeles, CA, for plaintiffs-appellants Doe.

Terrence P. Collingsworth and Natacha Thys, International Labor Rights Fund, Washington, DC; Christopher E. Krafchak and Kenderton S. Lynch III, Krafchak & Associates, Los Angeles, CA; Martin J. D'Urso, Hilary Cohen, and Nadia Ezzelarab, Kohn, Swift & Graf, P.C., Philadelphia, PA; Christobal Bonifaz and John C. Bonifaz, Law Offices of Christobal Bonifaz, Amherst, MA, for plaintiffs-appellants Roe.

Edwin V. Woodsome, Jr., D. Barclay Edmundson, David G. Meyer, and Keri R. Curtis, Howrey Simon Arnold & White, LLP, Los Angeles, CA; Jerrold J. Ganzfried, Howrey Simon Arnold & White, LLP, Washington, DC, for defendants-appellees Unocal Corporation, Union Oil Company of California, John Imle, and Roger C. Beach.

William J. Aceves, California Western School of Law, San Diego, California, for Amici Curiae International Human Rights Organizations and International Law and Human Rights Law Scholars.

Before PREGERSON, REINHARDT and TASHIMA, Circuit Judges.

Opinion by Judge PREGERSON; Concurrence by Judge REINHARDT

PREGERSON, Circuit Judge.

This case involves human rights violations that allegedly occurred in Myanmar, formerly known as Burma. Villagers from the Tenasserim region in Myanmar allege that the Defendants directly or indirectly subjected the villagers to forced labor, murder, rape, and torture when the Defendants constructed a gas pipeline through the Tenasserim region. The villagers base their claims...

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