These cases present the issue whether the second sentence of M.C.L. § 691.1407(1); M.S.A. § 3.996(107)(1), which affirms governmental immunity as it existed before July 1, 1965, codified the "two-inch rule"
Facts and Proceedings
These two cases arise out of slip and fall accidents involving sidewalk defects of less than two inches. In Glancy, the portion of sidewalk at issue was between 1¼ and 1½ inches higher than the surrounding sidewalk. In Ashton, the sidewalk portion at issue was between 1 and 1½ inches higher than the surrounding sidewalk. Defendants in both cases moved for summary disposition under MCR 2.116(C)(7) and (10), contending that subsection 7(1) reinstated the two-inch rule. In each case, the trial court granted defendant's motion for summary disposition, concluding that subsection 7(1) codified the two-inch rule into Michigan law. In Glancy, the Court of Appeals reversed, concluding that subsection 7(1) only preserved pre-1965 immunity for the state, not other governmental entities, i.e., municipalities. Glancy v. Roseville, 216 Mich.App. 390, 549 N.W.2d 78 (1996). In Ashton, the Court of Appeals reversed on the basis of Glancy. Ashton v. Hazel Park, unpublished memorandum opinion of the Court of Appeals, issued April 4, 1997 (Docket No. 182876).
Standard of Review
Appellate review of a trial court ruling on a motion for summary disposition is de novo. Spiek v. Dep't of Transportation, 456 Mich. 331, 337, 572 N.W.2d 201 (1998). "MCR 2.116(C)(7) tests whether a claim is barred because of immunity granted by law, and requires consideration of all documentary evidence filed or submitted by the parties." Wade v. Dep't of Corrections, 439 Mich. 158, 162, 483 N.W.2d 26 (1992).
I. Municipality Liability for Sidewalk Defects
The governmental tort liability act, M.C.L. § 691.1401 et seq.; M.S.A. § 3.996(101) et seq., provides governmental immunity for governmental agencies, including municipalities like defendants here. "[T]he heart of the act, § 7, provides for broad immunity from tort liability for governmental agencies engaged in governmental functions." Wade, supra at 166, 483 N.W.2d 26. "[E]xceptions to governmental immunity are to be narrowly construed." Id. M.C.L. § 691.1402(1); M.S.A. § 3.996(102)(1) sets forth the "highway exception" to governmental immunity. Subsection 2(1) states in pertinent part:
Subsection 2(1) requires municipalities to maintain sidewalks in "reasonable repair."
II. Affirmation of Pre-1965 Governmental Immunity
Subsection 7(1) of the governmental tort liability act, as amended in 1986, provides:
The second sentence of subsection 7(1) "retains preexisting governmental immunity law except where provided otherwise in the act" and mandates an historical approach. Hadfield v. Oakland Co. Drain Comm'r, 430 Mich. 139, 147, 170, 422 N.W.2d 205 (1988).
By its terms, this provision of subsection 7(1) applies to "the state." M.C.L. § 691.1401; M.S.A. § 3.996(101) provides distinct definitions of "state" and "municipal corporation" and defines "governmental agency" to include both. In the context of the first sentence of subsection 7(1), which uses the term "governmental agencies," the use of the term "the state" in the second sentence might be read to indicate that this provision applies only to the state, not to governmental agencies generally.
However, in Li v. Feldt (After Remand), 434 Mich. 584, 592-593, n. 8, 456 N.W.2d 55 (1990), which involved tort liability of municipalities, this Court stated that § 7 should be read to put "all agencies of government on the same footing with regard to tort liability." This Court noted that the stated purpose of the governmental tort liability act is to "make uniform the liability of municipal corporations, political subdivisions, and the state ... when engaged in the exercise or discharge of a governmental function." Id. In Hadfield, supra at 168-169, 422 N.W.2d 205, which involved actions against a county and municipality as well as the state, this Court recognized a trespass-nuisance exception to governmental immunity on the basis of the historical approach mandated by § 7. These authorities indicate that the second sentence of subsection 7(1) applies to all governmental agencies, not just the state, despite the use of the term "the state" in this provision.
The present case does not require this Court to reconsider whether these authorities
III. Whether the Two-inch rule is a Governmental Immunity Principle That Subsection 7(1) Would Affirm
Here, defendants contend that the second sentence of subsection 7(1) mandates the continued application of the two-inch rule despite this Court's abolition of it in 1972. The basis of the two-inch rule is the concept of "reasonable repair." The highway exception, subsection 2(1) of the governmental tort liability act, subjects governmental agencies to liability when they fail to maintain highways in "reasonable repair." The two-inch rule was a bright-line rule stating that defects of two inches or less constituted "reasonable repair" as a matter of law.
The roots of the two-inch rule can be traced to Weisse, supra, which involved injuries allegedly arising out of a defective crosswalk. The Weisse Court noted that, in 1887, the Legislature amended the statute, imposing a duty on municipalities to maintain highways so that it required "reasonable repair" rather than "good repair" and imposed a duty that streets be "reasonably safe," not absolutely safe. 105 Mich. at 486-487, 63 N.W. 423. The Weisse Court concluded that the street at issue was reasonably safe despite the alleged defect of approximately two inches and held that the trial court should have given the defendant's request to charge that "as a matter of law that no such defect existed as authorized a recovery." Id. at 483, 63 N.W. 423.
In Rule, supra at 283, 195 N.W.2d 849, this Court abolished the two-inch rule:
In abolishing the two-inch rule, the Rule Court relied on Justice Adams' dissent in Harris, supra. Justice Adams stated that the two-inch rule "gradually hardened into a rule of law that where a defect in a walk was less than 2 inches in depth, the walk would be considered to be safe and the city free from negligence." 367 Mich. at 531, 117 N.W.2d 32 (emphasis added). He agreed with Colorado authority indicating that it is improper to determine "actionable negligence" by an arbitrary measurement and concluded that the facts and circumstances of each case must be considered to determine if there is an issue to submit to the jury regarding whether the defendant is negligent. Id. at 535-536, 117 N.W.2d 32.
As this Court has previously noted, tort actions against governmental agencies generally raise two separate issues: 1) whether the plaintiff has pleaded a cause of action in avoidance of governmental immunity, and 2) whether the plaintiff can establish the elements of a negligence action.
Moreover, even with respect to immunity principles, subsection 7(1) does not preserve governmental immunity law in a time capsule as of July 1, 1965. Subsection 7(1) states that the act "shall not be construed as modifying or restricting" immunity as it existed before July 1, 1965. But this provision does not prohibit this Court from reconsidering and amending or abolishing pre-1965 precedent regarding governmental immunity. In Ross v. Consumers Power Co. (On Rehearing), 420 Mich. 567, 609, 363 N.W.2d 641 (1984), this Court reiterated that "`to read the second sentence of [subsection 7(1) ] as "preserving for all time state governmental immunity heretofore recognized by case-law" would be to "assume that the Legislature failed to recognize that the evolution of case law precedent is exclusively committed to the judicial branch of government."'"
IV. Whether to Adopt the Two-inch rule Under Subsection 2(1)
Alternatively, defendants argue that even if subsection 7(1) did not codify the two-inch rule, this Court should adopt the two-inch rule as a threshold for lack of "reasonable repair" under subsection 2(1). In support of adopting the two-inch rule, defendants cite the great expense to municipalities of defending lawsuits for injuries arising out of sidewalk defects of two inches or less. The Legislature, with its ability to consider testimony from a variety of sources and make compromise decisions, is much better positioned than the judiciary to consider such policy arguments and make policy choices.
For these reasons, we affirm the Court of Appeals decisions in both Glancy and Ashton.
MALLETT, C.J., and BRICKLEY, BOYLE, and WEAVER, JJ., concur with TAYLOR, J.
MARILYN J. KELLY, Justice (concurring in part and dissenting in part).
I concur with the result reached by the majority, and with much of its reasoning. However, I cannot join part IV of today's opinion.
Defendants argue that, if we find that the two-inch rule was not revived by statute, we should revive the two-inch rule ourselves. I agree with the majority's conclusion that we should not revive the two-inch rule at this time. I reach that decision, not because the Court lacks the power to revive the rule, but because defendants have not persuaded us that our decision in Rule was incorrect. Op. at 903.
I dissent because the majority, in an alternate position, rejects defendants' argument that the Court should adopt the two-inch rule because it would be unconstitutional to do so. I agree that, in areas properly within the province of the Legislature, the Court may not formulate its own public policy and, on that basis, change a statute. However, nothing in the opinion convinces me that reviving the two-inch rule would violate that limitation, and therefore, I cannot join the portion of the opinion that implies as much. I hesitate to construe limitations placed on this Court by our constitution where it is not necessary to do so.
MICHAEL F. CAVANAGH, J., concurs with MARILYN J. KELLY, J.