This appeal arises from a negligence suit instituted in the Circuit Court for Prince George's County by Natalie Noel Reading, appellee, against the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority ("WMATA"), appellant. Appellee, who is mentally disabled, sought to recover for injuries sustained when she exited a WMATA bus and was struck by a motor vehicle operated by Denise Doyle.
In August 1993, the case proceeded to trial on the issue of liability only. After the presentation of all the evidence, the trial court granted Ms. Doyle's motion for judgment with respect to WMATA's cross-claim, but denied WMATA's motion for judgment. Thereafter, the jury returned a verdict finding that WMATA was negligent and that appellee was not contributorily negligent.
On December 15, 1993, the parties agreed to a damage award in the amount of $175,000,
1. Did the trial court err in failing to grant WMATA's motion for judgment on the following grounds:
a. As a matter of law, WMATA's duty to Ms. Reading ended when she safely exited the bus onto the curb.
b. As a matter of law, WMATA's actions through its bus operator were not a proximate cause of Ms. Reading's injuries.
c. As a matter of law, Ms. Reading was contributorily negligent.
For the reasons discussed below, we shall reverse, because we agree with appellant that, as a matter of law, WMATA was not negligent. Accordingly, we decline to address the remaining issues.
At the time of the accident on January 13, 1988, Ms. Reading was twenty-five years old. Appellee's mother, whose name is also Natalie Reading, testified that, as a result of a traumatic birth, appellee suffers from "minimal brain damage," walks with an abnormal gait, and functions "at a third grade level." Appellee's mother also explained that routine is very important to appellee and she becomes "upset" when it is disrupted. According to appellee's mother, most people who meet appellee would not initially notice her mental disability. In this regard, she testified:
Appellee received special education at various facilities from the age of six until the age of twenty-one. At the Duckworth School, appellee received lessons in reading, writing, using money, and making purchases. Additionally, in 1979, Duckworth obtained employment for her as a day care aide at Childway Daycare Center ("Childway"). Because of her disability, appellee qualified for a WMATA handicapped photographic identification card ("I.D."), which lists her name and social security number, and entitles her to half price bus fare.
Prior to her placement, Duckworth instructors taught appellee how to ride public buses in order to travel to and from Childway. Appellee learned to display her special I.D. card when boarding the bus, to pay the fare, and to sit in the front of the bus. Additionally, appellee was instructed always to walk in front of the bus, to look both ways before crossing, and to obey cross walk signals after exiting the bus. Appellee's mother confirmed that her daughter knew "how to interpret" crosswalk signs, to recognize crosswalks, and to watch for traffic. WMATA did not participate in appellee's training.
On January 13, 1988, Richard Underwood, a WMATA employee, drove WMATA's number 86 bus, in place of the regular bus driver. At trial, Underwood testified that Ms. Reading boarded the bus at the corner of Dartmouth Avenue and Calvert Road, showed him her handicapped I.D., paid the reduced fare, and took a seat in the front of the bus. As part of his employee training, Underwood stated that he had received instruction in ensuring that handicapped passengers "get on safely and alight safely and watching out for their welfare." He also noticed that Ms. Reading walked in an unusual manner, with a leg that dragged a little bit, but he assumed only that she was physically disabled; he was unaware of any mental disabilities.
Underwood further explained that, after appellee boarded the bus, he drove southbound on Route One, in the direction of Knox Road. He also testified that, as the bus approached the intersection of Route One and Knox Road, he saw the 82 bus across the street, traveling in the northbound direction, and heard appellee remark, "my bus, my bus." For that reason, Underwood stated that, with his headlights, he signaled the number 82 bus to wait and he stopped his bus just prior to the intersection of Route One and Knox Road, in the curb lane of southbound traffic, to allow appellee to exit. This was not a regular bus stop, however.
Nevertheless, according to Underwood, he pulled the bus over at an angle and "put the last step o[f] the bus in the doorway right over the curb," along the sidewalk. Underwood also testified that the place he stopped had a "normal sidewalk" and was physically indistinguishable from a regular WMATA bus stop, aside from the absence of a bus stop sign or a rain shelter. He added that WMATA policy directs bus drivers generally to use bus stops, but that bus operators may pick up or discharge passengers at an unmarked location if done safely. Underwood also said that Ms. Reading would have missed the number 82 bus if he had stopped at the usual bus stop; he explained that, "[i]f I had brought her up to the next bus stop,... she would have had two blocks to walk back ... [and] the other driver would have said, it's too long, I got to go." Moreover, if Ms. Reading had missed the other bus, Underwood said she would have had to wait fifteen to twenty minutes for the next bus to arrive.
Additionally, Underwood testified that "before [appellee] even got [to] the door, ... I said I'll put you off right over here at this corner. Walk behind the bus. I already signaled him. He knows you are coming...." Underwood stated that after Ms. Reading exited the bus, she began to cross the street. As the traffic light in his direction was green, he shouted, "no." He also honked at Ms. Reading, who was on Route One directly in front of the bus. Thereafter, appellee was struck by Ms. Doyle's car.
Christine Hanson, a passenger on the number 86 bus, also testified. She stated that, before the bus reached the intersection of Knox Road and Route One, she heard appellee "shou[t] that she wanted to catch the bus that was coming down the other side of the street.... [and] said something like oh, oh, there goes the 82." Ms. Hanson further said that, immediately thereafter, appellee "jumped out of her seat and ran for the door, and the bus driver opened the door and let her out, and then she ran in front of the bus into the traffic" traveling southbound on Route One. She did not remember
Ms. Reading also testified in her own behalf.
Two other witnesses who were driving southbound on Route One, in the same direction as the WMATA vehicle, corroborated the testimony that the light facing southbound traffic had turned green and that traffic had started to flow on Route One before Ms. Reading ran in front of the bus. Moreover, Ms. Doyle stated that, at the time of the accident, she was also travelling southbound on Route One, in the same direction as the bus, at twenty-five miles per hour. She observed that the WMATA bus, which was pulled next to the curb in the right lane of Route One, had a green light. Then, when she attempted to pass the bus, she struck appellee, who ran in front of her path.
Corporal David Harris of the Prince George's County Police Department testified that the crosswalk signals were working properly on January 13, 1988 and that they would have read "Don't Walk" if the traffic light was green for vehicles on Route One.
Standard of Review
On various grounds, appellant contends that the court erred in failing to grant WMATA's motion for judgment. In reviewing the trial court's decision to deny appellant's motion for judgment, we "shall consider all evidence and inferences in the light most favorable to the party against whom the motion is made." Md.Rule 2-519(b) (1995). See also Oaks v. Connors, 339 Md. 24, 29 n. 4, 660 A.2d 423 (1995); Hawes v. Carberry, 103 Md.App. 214, 217, 653 A.2d 479 (1995). Moreover, the court's determination should be upheld "[i]f there is any evidence, no matter how slight, legally sufficient to generate a jury question." James v. General Motors Corp., 74 Md.App. 479, 484, 538 A.2d 782, cert. denied, 313 Md. 7, 542 A.2d 844 (1988). What the Court said in Mass Transit Admin. v. Miller, 271 Md. 256, 315 A.2d 772 (1974) is instructive:
Id., 271 Md. at 259, 315 A.2d 772 (quoting Curley v. General Valet Service, 270 Md. 248, 264, 311 A.2d 231 (1973)). Therefore, we must affirm the court's decision to submit the issue of appellee's negligence to the jury if we find that the evidence, and all of the inferences derived from it when viewed in the light most favorable to appellee, is sufficient to support a verdict of negligence.
The Contentions of the Parties
Appellee contends that the issue of WMATA's negligence was a question for the jury, because "[t]here were circumstances surrounding the discharge which create a substantial jury question ... on whether it was safe for WMATA to allow Ms. Reading to alight in the middle of ... [Route One], at no bus stop in deviation from her well-practiced route, with confusing instructions, and with the expectation that she was proceeding directly to the 82 station." Appellee asserts that WMATA was negligent because: (1) Reading alighted at a location that was not a regular bus stop; (2) while her status as a passenger continued, Reading was crossing a street to transfer to another WMATA bus; (3) Underwood instructed her to walk in back of the bus to cross the street; and (4) Reading is mentally disabled. In essence, it is the aggregation of WMATA's conduct, coupled with Reading's mental disability, that constitutes appellee's claim of negligence.
In contrast, appellant claims, inter alia, that when Ms. Reading reached the sidewalk in safety, she lost her status as a passenger. Therefore, WMATA argues that, at that point, its driver owed no further duty to her. WMATA also asserts that its driver lacked knowledge of Ms. Reading's mental disability and, therefore, it had no special duty to her based on her disability.
In our view, the facts would not establish primary negligence in the case of an adult passenger of ordinary intelligence. Even if negligence were established, the facts would compel a finding of contributory negligence with respect to a passenger who did not have a mental disability. The question, then, is whether Ms. Reading's mental disability, in combination with WMATA's conduct, constitutes negligence on the part of WMATA. In other words, we must decide if Ms. Reading's mental disability necessarily alters WMATA's liability. We conclude that, based on the facts of this case, WMATA was not negligent.
It is well established that a common carrier, such as WMATA, is obligated to use the highest degree of care that is consistent with its mode of transport to ensure the safety of its passengers. Leatherwood Motor Coach Tours Corp. v. Nathan, 84 Md.App. 370, 375, 579 A.2d 797 (1990), cert. denied, 321 Md. 639, 584 A.2d 68 (1991); Mass Transit Admin. v. Miller, 271 Md. 256, 259, 315 A.2d 772 (1974). Thus, a common carrier "owes its passengers a duty to deliver them to their destination as expeditiously as possible, consistent with safety." Mass Transit Admin., 271 Md. at 259, 315 A.2d 772. Moreover, a common carrier's duty to exercise the highest degree of care is not limited to the journey itself. Instead, the heightened duty also requires carriers to provide a safe means of boarding and exiting the conveyance. Leatherwood, 84 Md.App. at 376, 579 A.2d 797; 14 Am.Jur.2d Carriers, § 982. Nonetheless, a common carrier is not a guarantor of the safety of its passengers. Leatherwood Motor Coach, 84 Md.App. at 375, 579 A.2d 797. Rather, "`the degree of care which is exacted of ... carriers is subject to reasonable limitation. It is not the utmost and highest, absolutely, but the highest which is consistent with the nature of their business, and there must be due regard to its necessary requirements.'" Smith v. Baltimore Transit, 211 Md. 529, 537, 128 A.2d 413 (1957) (quoting Smith v. Transportation Co., 172 Md. 42, 49, 191 A. 66 (1937)).
That Ms. Reading was discharged at a location that is not a regular bus stop would not be dispositive in determining the negligence of WMATA, if Ms. Reading were not mentally handicapped. Indeed, if Ms. Reading were an ordinary adult, the undisputed facts would compel the conclusion that, once she was safely discharged, she was no longer a passenger.
By statute, Maryland does not require buses to discharge passengers only at bus stops, and WMATA policy allows drivers to discharge passengers at undesignated stops that are safe.
The case of Adams v. Baltimore Transit Co., 203 Md. 295, 100 A.2d 781 (1954), is instructive. There, the defendant Baltimore Transit Company was a public carrier that transported plaintiff to work at the Maryland Drydock Company. Railroad tracks, which were jointly controlled by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Transit Company, were used by the Drydock employees to cross between work and the Transit Company's waiting station. Plaintiff sued Baltimore Transit after he was discharged from a bus and was injured by the sudden movement of two railroad cars as he walked across the tracks.
The Court noted that "[t]he primary question is whether it was the duty of the Transit Company ... to provide a safe way for Adams ... to cross the tracks of the railroad between the Transit Company's waiting station and the premises of the Drydock Company." Id. at 304, 100 A.2d 781. Adams argued that the Transit Company knew or intended employees to cross the tracks, and thus it had the duty to provide a safe means to do so. What the Court said in affirming the trial court's grant of a demurrer as to the Transit Company is pertinent here:
Adams, 203 Md. at 305, 100 A.2d 781. Numerous cases from other jurisdictions are to the same effect. See, e.g., Thomas v. Hampton Express, Inc., 208 A.D.2d 824, 617 N.Y.S.2d 831 (1994), cert. denied, 85 N.Y.2d 803, 624 N.Y.S.2d 373, 648 N.E.2d 793 (1995); Kramer v. Lagnese, 144 A.D.2d 648, 535 N.Y.S.2d 13 (1988); Mitchell v. Chicago, 221 Ill.App.3d 1017, 164 Ill.Dec. 506, 583 N.E.2d 60 (1991); Heger v. Trustees of Indiana University, 526 N.E.2d 1041 (Ind.Ct.App.1988); Smith, 147 S.E.2d 110; Harris v. De Felice, 379 Pa. 469, 109 A.2d 174 (1954).
In Harris v. De Felice, supra, for example, the passenger on the defendant's street car was discharged at the southerly side of the highway, at a place that was not a regular car stop. The space was located between a retaining wall and highway that was "sufficient in width to permit a person to stand thereon." Id., 109 A.2d at 176. After exiting the street car, the passenger stood at the location until the street car started and then crossed the highway, where he was hit by a car. In affirming the trial court's decision to grant the carrier's motion for judgment, the court said:
The controlling question, therefore, is whether the defendant ... discharged the plaintiff at a manifestly dangerous place. It is the plaintiff's position that the place of discharge was obviously perilous because there was no place to stand in safety on the southerly side of the street. The only evidence ... concerning the safety of the space beyond the curb on that side of the street was plaintiff's statement that `If I stayed where I was, a car might have hit me, because there was nothing there but a little curb.' The only evidence regarding the size of the space [was] ... to the effect
Id., 109 A.2d at 176-77. (Emphasis added).
We also find noteworthy the case of Thomas v. Hampton Express, supra, in which a bus driver discharged a passenger at an undesignated spot, based on a passenger's request. While attempting to cross the highway, the passenger was struck by a vehicle. The court dismissed the passenger's negligence suit, because the passenger was discharged in a safe place, next to the shoulder of highway. The court concluded that the bus company's duty toward the passenger ceased once she safely exited the bus and attained the status of pedestrian. Thomas, 617 N.Y.S.2d at 832.
The case of Poe v. Detroit, 179 Mich.App. 564, 446 N.W.2d 523 (1989), is equally helpful. At the request of a thirteen year-old passenger, a city bus driver discharged him in a "no parking" zone, which was not an official bus stop. After the boy safely reached the sidewalk, he started to run across the street to catch another bus, although the cross walk sign was flashing "don't walk." Just as the child stepped into the street, he was struck and killed by another vehicle. The boy's parents sued the city, alleging, inter alia, that the bus driver was negligent in stopping at a "no parking" zone. After the trial court denied the city's motion for judgment, the jury rendered a verdict in favor of the plaintiff. But the Michigan Court of Appeals reversed the trial court's ruling with respect to defendant's motion. It concluded that, after the boy safely reached the sidewalk, his passenger status ended and the bus driver owed him no further duty. Id., 446 N.W.2d at 527.
In the case sub judice, it is undisputed that the bus driver pulled over to the side of the road to allow appellee to exit the bus. It is also beyond question that appellee safely alighted, without incident. Moreover, appellee did not present any evidence that the location at which appellee was discharged was unsafe, inherently dangerous, or otherwise less safe than her regular bus stop. Indeed, both stops were located at sidewalks along Route One, only one block apart. The only distinctions between the locations concern the designation of one as an actual bus stop, their distance from the number 82 bus stop, and the presence of the crosswalk at the undesignated stop. Although the discharge occurred at a location other than an official bus stop, there was no evidence that it was a dangerous location. Moreover, under the facts of this case, if Ms. Reading were a person without a mental disability, her status as a passenger clearly would have ended when she was safely discharged.
Nor are we persuaded that a passenger's intention to transfer to another WMATA bus, even when known to the bus driver, automatically continues his or her passenger status. Ordinarily, the passenger/carrier relationship ceases after the journey has ended and the passenger has safely exited the conveyance. Leatherwood, 84 Md.App. at 376, 579 A.2d 797. But, when a passenger alights at a bus station or terminal, the carrier may be held liable for injuries occurring inside the facility while the passenger is transferring to another conveyance. 13 C.J.S. § 968. A carrier is not responsible, however, when a passenger who exits at a location on a public street is injured while crossing the street in order to transfer to another conveyance.
In this regard, the case of Mitchell v. Chicago, supra, is helpful. The plaintiff departed from a Chicago Transit Authority ("C.T.A.") bus at a designated stop in order to transfer to a CTA train in the station
Id., 164 Ill.Dec. at 508-09, 583 N.E.2d at 62-63 (quoting Rotheli v. Chicago Transit Authority, 7 Ill.2d 172, 130 N.E.2d 172 (1955)).
Ms. Reading exited the bus at a public sidewalk along Route One, over which WMATA does not exercise control. At the point that she safely exited from the number 86 bus, she was no longer a passenger; if Ms. Reading had crossed the street safely and had entered the number 82 bus, she would have regained her passenger status. Therefore, if Ms. Reading were not mentally disabled, WMATA would not be liable for appellee's injuries merely because she was crossing the street in order to transfer to another bus.
Furthermore, in the ordinary situation, WMATA would not be liable based on the driver's directions to a passenger, unless those instructions were the proximate cause of the accident. See Mackey v. Dorsey, 104 Md.App. 250, 269-70, 655 A.2d 1333 (1995). Cf. Mallard v. Earl, 106 Md.App. 449, 457, 665 A.2d 287 (1995) (in a Boulevard Rule case, the rule is applicable unless the favored driver's unlawful conduct was a proximate cause of the collision). Proximate cause will only be established if there is a reasonable connection between the defendant's alleged negligence and the plaintiff's injuries. Taylor v. Feissner, 103 Md.App. 356, 653 A.2d 947, cert. denied, 339 Md. 355, 663 A.2d 73 (1995). Even if the defendant's breach were a cause, in fact, of the injury, there is no liability if a third party's actions, or the plaintiff's own actions, constitute an intervening, superseding force that interrupts the chain of causation. See Hartford Ins. Co. v. Manor Inn of Bethesda, Inc., 335 Md. 135, 157-61, 642 A.2d 219 (1994); Mackey, 104 Md.App. at 270, 655 A.2d 1333.
The case of Bloom v. Good Humor Ice Cream Company, 179 Md. 384, 18 A.2d 592 (1941) elucidates the issue of proximate cause. There, in response to the invitation of the driver of an ice cream truck, a ten year-old boy crossed the street to buy some ice cream. After making a purchase, the boy walked behind the truck and began to recross the street, when he was struck by a motor vehicle. The child sued the ice cream company, alleging that the driver was negligent "in inviting the said infant Plaintiff to a place of danger, for the purpose of selling him one of his employer's products and in failing and neglecting to see that the said infant plaintiff was safely returned to the east sidewalk ... after he had consummated his purchase." What the Court said in affirming a demurrer in favor of the ice cream company is pertinent:
From the alleged facts in this case, it appears very clear that the accident to the appellant was brought about entirely by
Id., 179 Md. at 388-89, 18 A.2d 592.
Similarly, in Cooke v. Elk Coach Line, Inc., 37 Del. 120, 180 A. 782 (1935), a passenger who had been instructed to exit the bus and cross the street to transfer to a connecting bus line was struck by a vehicle while crossing the street. Despite the bus company's instructions, the court found that the bus company's duty ended when the plaintiff safely exited the bus and assumed the status of pedestrian. Id., 180 A. at 784. Likewise, in Pritchard v. City Lines of West Virginia, Inc., 136 W.Va. 278, 66 S.E.2d 276 (1951), a bus driver instructed a passenger to cross the street to transfer to another bus, but did not warn the passenger about traffic. Although the passenger was struck by an oncoming vehicle while crossing the street after he exited the bus, the court held that the bus company was not negligent. Id., 66 S.E.2d at 279.
The case of Sanford v. Bi-State Develop. Agency, 705 S.W.2d 572 (Mo.Ct.App.1986) also provides guidance in illustrating the issue of proximate cause. There, a bus that was prevented by a parked car from stopping at its regular location stopped adjacent to the bus stop sign, but one lane away from the curb. A thirteen year-old girl exited the bus. Rather than walking to the curb, the girl began to cross the street in front of the bus, where she was struck by a motor vehicle. The court held that the bus driver's actions were not the proximate cause of the girl's injuries. What the court said is noteworthy:
Id., 705 S.W.2d at 575-76. Cases from other jurisdictions considering this issue have reached the same result. See, e.g., Burton, 530 N.W.2d at 703; Poe, 446 N.W.2d at 530; Kramer v. Lagnese, 144 A.D.2d 648, 535 N.Y.S.2d 13 (1988); Mississippi City Lines, Inc. v. Bullock, 194 Miss. 630, 13 So.2d 34, 37-38 (1943).
Here, it is undisputed that appellee did not follow Underwood's directions. Indeed, she testified that she knew to cross in front of the bus. Moreover, appellee testified that she had been traveling by herself, on the same bus route, for years and she knew to obey crosswalk signals. Nevertheless, in order to take another bus, she decided to leave a place of safety, crossed in front of the bus, and entered the street. Clearly, if she were not mentally disabled, her decision to cross the street would constitute the intervening, superseding cause of the accident.
The foregoing discussion leads us to the question of whether, based on appellee's mental disability, WMATA is liable in negligence when it otherwise would not have been liable. Appellant argues that WMATA did not owe Ms. Reading a higher degree of care because of her mental disability and that WMATA is not liable because the bus driver had no knowledge of appellee's disability. Appellee contends, however, that WMATA owed her a greater duty because of her disability. Maryland courts have never specifically considered whether carriers owe a greater duty of care to mentally handicapped
The matter of the carrier's actual knowledge of a disability was a factor in the court's decision in Ortiz v. Greyhound Corp., 275 F.2d 770 (4th Cir.1960). There, the Fourth Circuit addressed whether a bus company owed a higher duty of care to a passenger with "impaired vision" who exited a bus and, some two hours later, was struck by another of the company's buses when he wandered from the waiting area. The plaintiff claimed that, based on his visual infirmity, which was known to the carrier's baggage attendant, he was entitled to a higher degree of care than the ordinary passenger. The court concluded, that, after spending two hours in the waiting room, the plaintiff lost his passenger status. Nevertheless, the court recognized that a carrier owes a passenger the duty to exercise the highest degree of care with respect to safety, and that this duty extends to waiting areas and the "safe means of egress from the vehicle...." Id., 275 F.2d at 772. But, the court also said that, even if the carrier's baggage attendant were aware of the plaintiff's infirmity, the carrier's duty to him "terminated when [the attendant] observed [the plaintiff] in the safety of the waiting room," because the baggage attendant was "justified in believing that [the passenger] was not in any danger." Id. at 775.
Courts in other jurisdictions have held that a carrier owes a greater duty to a handicapped person if the passenger's condition has been made known to the carrier or is readily apparent. Montgomery v. Midkiff and Transit Authority of River City, 770 S.W.2d 689, 690 (Ky.Ct.App.1989); Paolone v. American Airlines, Inc., 706 F.Supp. 11, 12 (S.D.N.Y.1989); Heger v. Trustees of Indiana University, 526 N.E.2d 1041, 1043 n. 4 (Ind.Ct.App.1988); Crear v. National Fire & Marine Ins. Co., 469 So.2d 329, 334-35 (La.App.1985). See also Cary v. New Orleans Public Serv., 250 So.2d 92 (La.App.), cert. denied, 259 La. 808, 253 So.2d 67 (1971) (the driver was not expected to know that aged passenger might need special help when passenger "manifested no physical disability or infirmity"). But a common carrier is not required to take affirmative steps to discover a passenger's disabilities. See generally E.B. Morris, Annotation, Duty of Carrier to Discover Abnormal Condition of a Passenger, 124 A.L.R. 1428 (1940). As the court in Crear said,
Id., 469 So.2d at 334-35 (quoting 13 C.J.S. Carriers, § 727, at 1364).
Here, appellee presented no evidence that Underwood actually knew of the disability. Nor does the evidence, even in the light most favorable to appellee, suggest that the driver reasonably should have known of appellee's mental disability. The
Apparently, the regular driver who ordinarily drove the number 86 bus knew of appellee's mental handicap. We are unaware of any authority, however, that would impute actual knowledge to Underwood based on what another WMATA bus driver may have known. We are also unaware of any obligation that would have required WMATA not to change its drivers on any particular shift, so long as the change was consistent with its own rules, policies, and procedures.
In our view, based on Underwood's limited contact with appellee, a reasonable jury could not conclude that Underwood knew or should have known of appellee's mental disability. In any event, even if Underwood knew or should have known of appellee's needs, he was not negligent in meeting them. After learning that appellee wanted to transfer to the number 82 bus, he signaled its driver to wait for her. In order to help her, he stopped the number 86 bus at the curb, in advance of the regular bus stop, to enable her to reach the number 82 bus before it departed. The accident was, of course, most unfortunate. Nevertheless, under the circumstances of this case, appellant was not negligent. Therefore, the court erred in failing to grant WMATA's motion for judgment.
JUDGMENT OF THE CIRCUIT COURT FOR PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY REVERSED. COSTS TO BE PAID BY APPELLEE.