Nos. 94-1247, 94-1248.

19 F.3d 873 (1994)

Bruce MARKS; Kathy Steck, on behalf of the Voters of the Second District; Emanuel Lorenzo; Lydia Colon; Lillian Cruz; Diana Irizarry; Ruth Martinez; Zoraida Rodriguez; Yesenia Vasquez; Republican State Committee v. William STINSON; the William Stinson Campaign; Philadelphia County Board of Elections; Margaret M. Tartaglione; John F. Kane; Alexander Z. Talmadge, Jr. and various Doe and Roe Defendants. Senator William Stinson, Appellant in No. 94-1247. Philadelphia County Board of Elections, Margaret M. Tartaglione, John F. Kane and Alexander Talmadge, Jr., Appellants in No. 94-1248. Ida Dougherty, Daniel J. Sears, Josephine Martin, Mary Martin, Joseph J. Jordan, Anne Jordan, Mary Sullivan, Mary Mendoloski, Anna Hagan and Robert W. Les, Intervenor-Appellants, as per the Court on 3/9/94, in Nos. 94-1247 and 94-1248.

United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit.

Decided March 16, 1994.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Bruce S. Marks, pro se.

Paul S. Rosen (argued) and Jeffrey M. Goldstein, Spector Gadon & Rosen, P.C., Philadelphia, PA, for plaintiffs-appellees Kathy Steck, Manuel Lorenzo, Lydia Colon, Lillian Cruz, Diana Irizarry, Ruth Martinez, Zoraida Rodriguez, Yesenia Vasquez and Republican State Committee.

Arthur Makadon (argued), Charisse R. Lillie, Darryl J. May, Daniel Schoor-Rube, Robert R. Baron, Jr., Stephen J. Kastenberg, Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll; and Ralph J. Teti and Catherine L. Merino, Willig, Williams & Davidson, Philadelphia, PA, for appellant William Stinson.

Joseph A. Dworetzky, Acting City Sol., James B. Jordan (argued), Chair, Litigation Group and Marie C. Lasota, Asst. City Sol., City of Philadelphia Law Dept., Philadelphia, PA, for appellants Philadelphia County Bd. of Elections, Margaret Tartaglione, John F. Kane and Alexander Talmadge, Jr.

Richard A. Sprague (argued), Geoffrey R. Johnson and Denise Pallante, Sprague & Sprague, Philadelphia, PA, for intervenor-appellants.

Robert L. Byer, John P. Krill, Jr., Wendy E.D. Smith and Linda J. Shorey, Kirkpatrick & Lockhart, Harrisburg, PA, for amici curiae Republican Members of the Pennsylvania Senate.

Thomas A. Allen and Laura W. Brewer, White and Williams, Philadelphia, PA, for amicus curiae the Committee of Seventy (Frederick L. Voigt, Donald Beckman and Marsha I. Cohen, of counsel).

Edwin A. Abrahamsen, Lawrence J. Moran, William P. Conaboy, Abrahamsen Moran & Conaboy, P.C., Scranton, PA, and Mark A. Packman, Linda D. Feldmann and Teresa L. HarveyParedes, Dickstein, Shapiro & Morin, Washington, DC, for amici curiae Democratic Members of the Senate of Pennsylvania.

Before: STAPLETON, GREENBERG and COWEN, Circuit Judges.


STAPLETON, Circuit Judge:

After an evidentiary hearing on the plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction, the district court in this case found that certain officials responsible for conducting an election in the second senatorial district of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania had conspired with one of the two candidates to cause numerous illegally obtained absentee ballots to be cast. Based on that finding, the district court issued...

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