No. 91-1932.

971 F.2d 936 (1992)

Sen. Arlen SPECTER; Sen. Harris Wofford; Sen. Bill Bradley; Sen. Frank R. Lautenberg; Governor Robert P. Casey; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; Ernest D. Preate, Jr., Pennsylvania Attorney General; Rep. Curt Weldon, Rep. Thomas Foglietta; Rep. Robert Andrews; Rep. R. Lawrence Coughlin; City of Philadelphia; Howard J. Landry; International Federation of Professional and Technical Engineers, Local 3, William F. Reil; Metal Trades Council, Local 687 Machinists; Governor James J. Florio; State of New Jersey; Robert J. Del Tufo, New Jersey Attorney General; Governor Michael N. Castle; State of Delaware; Rep. Peter H. Kostmeyer; Rep. Robert A. Borski, Ronald Warrington; Planners Estimators Progressman & Schedulers Union Local No. 2 v. H. Lawrence GARRETT, III, Secretary of the Navy; Richard Cheney, Secretary of Defense; the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission, and its Members; James A. Courter; William L. Ball, III; Howard H. Callaway; Duane H. Cassidy; Arthur Levitt, Jr.; James C. Smith, II; Robert D. Stuart, Jr., U.S. Sen. Arlen Specter, U.S. Sen. Harris Wofford, U.S. Sen. Bill Bradley, U.S. Sen. Frank R. Lautenberg, Governor Robert P. Casey, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Attorney General Ernest D. Preate, Jr., Governor James J. Florio, the State of New Jersey, New Jersey Attorney General Robert J. Del Tufo, Governor Michael N. Castle, the State of Delaware, U.S. Rep. Curt Weldon, U.S. Rep. Thomas Foglietta, U.S. Rep. Robert E. Andrews, U.S. Rep. R. Lawrence Coughlin, U.S. Rep. Peter H. Kostmayer, U.S. Rep. Robert A. Borski, the City of Philadelphia, Howard J. Landry, International Federation of Professional and Technical Engineers, Local 3, William F. Reil, Metals Trades Council, Local 687, Machinists, Ronald Warrington, the Planners Estimators Progressman & Schedulers Union, Local No. 2, Appellants.

United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit.

Decided April 17, 1992.

Rehearing and Rehearing Denied May 20, 1992.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Bruce W. Kauffman (argued), David H. Pittinsky, Camille Wolf Spiniello, Patrick T. Davish, Mark A. Nation, Dilworth, Paxson, Kalish & Kauffman, Philadelphia, Pa. (Senator Arlen Specter (argued), of counsel), for appellants.

Ernest D. Preate, Jr., Atty. Gen. for Pa., Louis J. Rovelli, Executive Deputy Atty. Gen. for Pa., Harrisburg, Pa., for Com. of Pa. and Ernest D. Preate, Jr.

Robert J. Del Tufo, Atty. Gen. of N.J., Jack M. Sabatino, Asst. Atty. Gen. of State of N.J., Howard J. McCoach, Deputy Atty. Gen., State of N.J., Trenton, N.J., for the State of N.J., Governor James J. Florio and Robert J. Del Tufo.

Charisse Lillie, Sol. for the City of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa., for City of Philadelphia.

Stuart M. Gerson, Asst. Atty. Gen., Michael M. Baylson, U.S. Atty., Douglas N. Letter, Scott R. McIntosh (argued), Jennifer H. Zacks, Attys., Appellate Staff, Civil Div., Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., for appellees.

Before STAPLETON, SCIRICA and ALITO, Circuit Judges.

Rehearing and Rehearing In Banc Denied May 20, 1992.


STAPLETON, Circuit Judge:


This is an action to enjoin the Secretary of Defense from carrying out a decision to close the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard ("Shipyard"). The plaintiffs-appellants ("plaintiffs") are Shipyard workers; their unions; members of Congress from Pennsylvania and New Jersey; the States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, and officials of...

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