SELYA, Circuit Judge.
This appeal calls upon us, in the course of determining whether an employer transgressed the law in its dealings with a former employee, to map the much traveled but little understood intersection between Rule 56 of the Civil Rules and the burden-shifting framework for discrimination cases first crafted by the Court in McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792, 93 S.Ct. 1817, 36 L.Ed.2d 668 (1973). For the reasons that follow, we affirm the entry of summary judgment in the employer's favor.
Recognizing the dictates of Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c), we scan the record in the light most congenial to the summary judgment loser and draw all reasonable inferences to his benefit.
In 1974, Radio Corporation of America (RCA) hired plaintiff-appellant Samuel Mesnick, a lawyer by training, to work as a senior contracts administrator at its plant in Burlington, Massachusetts. Mesnick was then fifty-one years of age. He was promoted several times, eventually becoming manager of contracts administration. In 1986, defendant-appellee General Electric Company (GE) purchased RCA's business and installed new management at the Burlington facility. Achilles Georgiou became director of finance, and thus, Mesnick's immediate superior. Georgiou discussed Mesnick's job performance with Mesnick's former supervisors, receiving mixed reviews. Georgiou was told good things about Mesnick's technical competence. He was also told, however, that Mesnick had at times shown himself to be a vulgar, bigoted, sexist lout who insulted subordinates, offended clients, drank to excess during lunch, and so forth. On March 7, 1987, Georgiou wrote his initial evaluation of Mesnick's performance. It was largely negative.
Later on, a meeting was held in which Mesnick complained to Georgiou about unfair treatment in these matters. At the same time, the men discussed an expected reorganization of the contracts department (the Department). As part of this reorganization, GE planned to instate a supervisory position, the holder of which would be in charge of departmental operations at both Burlington and GE's facility in Huntsville, Alabama.
Following this unfruitful meeting, Mesnick attempted to go over Georgiou's head. On April 23, 1987, he sent a memorandum to Salvatore Capodici, the Burlington plant's top executive. In the memorandum, Mesnick remonstrated, generally, about Georgiou's leadership of the Department; complained, specifically, about Sherman's advance knowledge of the new position, see supra note 2; and raised the boggart of possible age discrimination. Mesnick's criticism of Georgiou continued in a series of memoranda to, and conversations with, Capodici, and in sundry communications with subordinates. Among other things, he produced and presented for Capodici's edification a slide show belittling Georgiou's performance and capabilities. He also circulated notes to fellow employees exploring the idea of jumping ship and joining a rival company.
Mesnick never applied for the position as manager of the Department. On December 14, 1987, after a national search, GE named Steve Tubbs, age forty-two, to the vacancy. Mesnick was assigned to a different office and given the title of "manager, special projects." His salary and benefits were unscathed, but his new post was under Tubbs and lacked supervisory power over other employees. Left as an emperor without an empire, Mesnick fired off a letter to Capodici explicitly criticizing Georgiou's integrity, professional honesty, and competence.
From that point forward, the situation plunged downhill. On one occasion, upset with Capodici, Mesnick boldly directed profanity at him. On another occasion, Mesnick received a warning from Georgiou in respect to attendance problems. On January 21, 1988, Mesnick filed charges with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) alleging that GE violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 29 U.S.C. §§ 621-634 (1988), and its Massachusetts analogue, Mass.Gen.L. ch. 151B (1990), by failing to promote him and, instead, hiring Tubbs. GE learned of the charges on January 26, 1988.
That February, Mesnick and his superiors tangled regarding a self-evaluation form that GE asked Mesnick to complete. He adamantly refused, claiming that he was under no obligation to fill out the form. Over the next four months, a bad situation grew steadily worse.
On the same day, despite his enduring failure to complete the self-evaluation form, Mesnick received a performance evaluation from Tubbs. Tubbs rated Mesnick's overall performance "marginally acceptable." While acknowledging Mesnick's "extensive contractual technical experience," Tubbs stated that these talents were "negated by his lack of interpersonal skills/confrontational attitude, contentiousness, disregard for management direction and policy, and inability/unwillingness to fulfill managerial grade expectations." Mesnick received no merit increase for 1988. Moreover, he was relocated to a smaller office, away from the Department.
Undaunted, Mesnick responded by filing a 20.10 concern in which he branded Tubbs' handling of Mesnick's unauthorized absences as derelict and suggested that Tubbs be fired. After an investigation, Tubbs was exonerated. On September 7, 1988, Mesnick circulated yet another billet-doux. In it he renewed his attack on Tubbs, attempted
II. THE SUMMARY JUDGMENT STANDARD
In civil procedure, summary judgment's role is "to pierce the pleadings and to assess the proof in order to see whether there is a genuine need for trial." Garside v. Osco Drug, Inc., 895 F.2d 46, 50 (1st Cir.1990) (citation omitted); see also Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323-24, 106 S.Ct. 2548, 2552-53, 91 L.Ed.2d 265 (1986). Since appellate review of a grant of summary judgment is plenary, the court of appeals, like the district court, "must view the entire record in the light most hospitable to the party opposing summary judgment, indulging all reasonable inferences in that party's favor." Griggs-Ryan v. Smith, 904 F.2d 112, 115 (1st Cir.1990). An appellate panel is not restricted to the district court's reasoning but can affirm a summary judgment on any independently sufficient ground. Garside, 895 F.2d at 48-49. In the end, the entry of summary judgment can be upheld only if "the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c).
The Rule 56 pavane has a distinctive set of steps. When requesting summary judgment, the moving party "must put the ball in play, averring `an absence of evidence to support the nonmoving party's case.'" Garside, 895 F.2d at 48 (quoting Celotex, 477 U.S. at 325, 106 S.Ct. at 2554). The nonmovant must then document some factual disagreement sufficient to deflect brevis disposition. Not every discrepancy in the proof is enough to forestall a properly supported motion for summary judgment; the disagreement must relate to some genuine issue of material fact. See Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 247-48, 106 S.Ct. 2505, 2509-10, 91 L.Ed.2d 202 (1986); Medina-Munoz v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 896 F.2d 5, 8 (1st Cir.1990). Genuine issues of material fact are not the stuff of an opposing party's dreams. On issues where the nonmovant bears the ultimate burden of proof, he must present definite, competent evidence to rebut the motion. See Anderson, 477 U.S. at 256-57, 106 S.Ct. at 2514-15; Garside, 895 F.2d at 48. This evidence "cannot be conjectural or problematic; it must have substance in the sense that it limns differing versions of the truth which a factfinder must resolve at an ensuing trial." Mack v. Great Atl. & Pac. Tea Co., 871 F.2d 179, 181 (1st Cir.1989); see also Anderson, 477 U.S. at 249-50, 106 S.Ct. at 2510-11 (evidence that "is merely colorable or is not significantly probative" cannot deter summary judgment) (citation omitted).
Over time, summary judgment has proven its usefulness as a means of avoiding full-dress trials in unwinnable cases, thereby freeing courts to utilize scarce judicial resources in more beneficial ways. Hence, while courts should apply the controlling standards carefully in all cases — and especially in cases that present difficult issues of proof — summary judgment can be appropriately entered even where elusive concepts such as motive or intent are involved. See, e.g., Medina-Munoz, 896 F.2d at 8.
III. THE DISCRIMINATION CLAIM
We consider, first, the claim of discrimination. Although the plaintiff tries to balkanize this claim into several segments — he contends, inter alia, that GE violated the ADEA by evaluating his work performance in an unfairly negative fashion, cutting his slated salary increase, impeding his ability to apply for the position of contracts manager, hiring a younger person for that position,
The plaintiff in an ADEA discrimination suit bears the ultimate "burden of proving that his years were the determinative factor in his discharge, that is, that he would not have been fired but for his age." Freeman v. Package Machinery Co., 865 F.2d 1331, 1335 (1st Cir.1988); see also Texas Dep't of Community Affairs v. Burdine, 450 U.S. 248, 253, 101 S.Ct. 1089, 1093-94, 67 L.Ed.2d 207 (1981). When, as here, the plaintiff produces no direct evidence of age discrimination, his case is governed in the first instance by the burden-shifting framework of McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. at 802-05, 93 S.Ct. at 1824-26. See Medina-Munoz, 896 F.2d at 8; Loeb v. Textron, Inc., 600 F.2d 1003, 1010 (1st Cir.1979). It is the judge's province to determine if the respective parties have adduced sufficient evidence to satisfy these burdens. Dea v. Look, 810 F.2d 12, 16 (1st Cir.1987).
The framework is by now a familiar one. The plaintiff must initially make a prima facie showing of discrimination. McDonnell Douglas, 411 U.S. at 802, 93 S.Ct. at 1824; Medina-Munoz, 896 F.2d at 8. The burden of making out a prima facie case is "not onerous." Burdine, 450 U.S. at 253, 101 S.Ct. at 1094; see also Villanueva v. Wellesley College, 930 F.2d 124, 127 (1st Cir.) (the prima facie showing is "quite easy to meet"), cert. denied, ___ U.S. ___, 112 S.Ct. 181, 116 L.Ed.2d 143 (1991). In an age discrimination case, this requires a demonstration that (i) the plaintiff was over the age of forty, (ii) his work was sufficient to meet his employer's legitimate expectations, (iii) his employer took adverse action against him, and (iv) the employer sought a replacement with roughly equivalent job qualifications, thus revealing a continued need for the same services and skills. See, e.g., Hebert v. Mohawk Rubber Co., 872 F.2d 1104, 1110 (1st Cir. 1989); Menzel v. Western Auto Supply Co., 848 F.2d 327, 328 (1st Cir.1988). This showing gives rise to an inference that the employer discriminated due to the plaintiff's advanced years. See Freeman, 865 F.2d at 1335.
The next burden — articulating a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for the adverse employment decision — belongs to the defendant. See Hebert, 872 F.2d at 1111; Menzel, 848 F.2d at 328. This entails only a burden of production, not a burden of persuasion; the task of proving discrimination remains the claimant's at all times. See Burdine, 450 U.S. at 253, 256, 101 S.Ct. at 1093, 1095; Medina-Munoz, 896 F.2d at 9. Once such a reason emerges, the inference raised by the prima facie case dissolves, Medina-Munoz, 896 F.2d at 9; Freeman, 865 F.2d at 1336, and the last transfer of burdens occurs.
At the final stage, the plaintiff is required to show, unassisted by the original inference of discrimination, that the employer's proffered reason is actually a pretext for discrimination of the type alleged.
Because the resultant burden can be carried without direct proof of discrimination, requiring the plaintiff to show that the employer's reason is a pretext for age discrimination comports with the principle that a plaintiff should not be required to produce "smoking-gun" evidence before prevailing in a discrimination suit. There are many veins of circumstantial evidence that may be mined by a plaintiff to this end. These include, but are by no means limited to, statistical evidence showing disparate treatment by the employer of members of the protected class, see, e.g., Olivera v. Nestle Puerto Rico, Inc., 922 F.2d 43, 49 (1st Cir.1990), comments by decision-makers which denigrate those over forty, see, e.g., Siegel v. Alpha Wire Corp., 894 F.2d 50, 55 (3d Cir.), cert. denied, ___ U.S. ___, 110 S.Ct. 2588, 110 L.Ed.2d 269 (1990), the incidence of differential treatment in the workplace, see, e.g., McDonnell Douglas, 411 U.S. at 804-05, 93 S.Ct. at 1825-26, and the deployment of younger replacements, see, e.g., Hebert, 872 F.2d at 1115. Above all, courts will look at evidence of discrimination not in splendid isolation, but as part of an aggregate package of proof offered by the plaintiff. Olivera, 922 F.2d at 50.
It is important to remain mindful that, when the summary judgment record is complete, the jurisprudence of Rule 56 takes hold and the McDonnell Douglas burden-shifting framework must comport with the rule. See MacDonald v. Eastern Wyo. Mental Health Ctr., 941 F.2d 1115, 1122-23 (10th Cir.1991) (Seth, J., writing separately). If the plaintiff has failed to limn a prima facie case, the inference of discrimination never arises, and the employer's motion for summary judgment will be granted. See, e.g., Menard v. First Sec. Servs. Corp., 848 F.2d 281, 285-87 (1st Cir.1988). If the plaintiff has made out his prima facie case, and the employer has not offered a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason to justify the adverse employment action, then the inference of discrimination created by the prima case persists, and the employer's attempt to secure summary judgment should be rebuffed. See, e.g., Burdine, 450 U.S. at 254, 101 S.Ct. at 1094; Furnco, 438 U.S. at 577, 98 S.Ct. at 2949. When the struggle has progressed to the third and final phase of burden-shifting, however, then the McDonnell Douglas framework falls by the wayside. Because this phenomenon is much misunderstood, we pause briefly to explicate it.
It is settled that the presumption arising from a discrimination plaintiff's prima facie
Put another way, under conventional summary judgment practice, a plaintiff must establish at least a genuine issue of material fact on every element essential to his case in chief. Celotex, 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct. at 2552-53. Hence, in a case where the first two steps of the McDonnell Douglas pavane have been satisfactorily choreographed, a plaintiff must offer some minimally sufficient evidence, direct or indirect, both of pretext and of the employer's discriminatory animus to prevail in the face of a properly drawn Rule 56 motion. Once the burden-shifting framework has run its course, we think that courts should not unduly complicate matters, whether on summary judgment or on motion for directed verdict at trial's end, "by applying legal rules which were devised to govern `the basic allocation of burdens and order of proof' in deciding this ultimate question." Aikens, 460 U.S. at 716, 103 S.Ct. at 1482 (quoting Burdine, 450 U.S. at 252, 101 S.Ct. at 1093) (citation omitted).
It is against this backdrop that we move to the particulars of Mesnick's discrimination claim. We realize, as we do so, that the quantum of evidence a plaintiff must produce to survive a directed verdict at trial, and thus, the quantum necessary to survive a pretrial Rule 56 motion, is not susceptible to formulaic quantification. The determination must be made case by case, in light of the principles undergirding summary judgment, the evidentiary record, and the substantive rules of law applicable in a given instance.
The district court ruled that there was no significantly probative evidence that GE's stated reason for its actions — Mesnick's insubordination and inimicality — masked a discriminatory animus based on Mesnick's age.
To be sure, Mesnick flooded the nisi prius roll with plethoric evidence designed to illustrate his professional competence
The first piece of evidence comprises a comment attributed to Georgiou, on the occasion of Sherman's departure, that he was "sad to lose the youth of the work force." Words of praise for youth — Sherman was in his thirties — do not, by themselves, indicate a bias against more mature workers.
The second piece of evidence upon which Mesnick fastens is no more rugged. He points to the fact that, when an outside search firm retained by GE reported on potential recruits for the manager's position, it not only furnished the company a roster of candidates, but also listed their ages.
To sum up, the district court was under no obligation to draw unreasonably speculative inferences in mulling whether the plaintiff fulfilled his burden of adducing "specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial." Anderson, 477 U.S. at 256, 106 S.Ct. at 2514. Inasmuch as the summary judgment record contained no evidence from which a rational jury could infer, without the most tenuous insinuation, that GE's legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for cashiering Mesnick was actually a pretext for age discrimination, the district court did not err in defenestrating the plaintiff's claim. See Celotex, 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct. at 2552 ("[A] complete failure of proof concerning an essential element of the nonmoving party's case necessarily renders all other facts immaterial.").
IV. THE RETALIATION CLAIM
Our journey through the record is still incomplete. In addition to claiming that GE discriminated against him by reason of his age, the plaintiff also alleged that GE retaliated against him because he dared to exercise ADEA-related rights. We turn, then, to the question of whether Mesnick presented sufficient evidence to evade summary judgment on his retaliation claim.
The ADEA provides in pertinent part:
29 U.S.C. § 623(d). Absent direct evidence, the McDonnell Douglas burden-shifting framework remains the option of choice in retaliation cases, albeit with slight modifications. Under the applicable model, the plaintiff must make a prima facie showing that (i) he engaged in ADEA-protected conduct, (ii) he was thereafter subjected to an adverse employment action, and (iii) a causal connection existed between the protected conduct and the adverse action. See Connell v. Bank of Boston, 924 F.2d 1169, 1179 (1st Cir.), cert. denied, ___ U.S. ___, 111 S.Ct. 2828, 115 L.Ed.2d 997 (1991); Petitti, 909 F.2d at 33. The fact that a plaintiff eventually proves unable to establish that the employer violated the ADEA in the first instance is not fatal to his prima facie case of retaliation. It is enough that the plaintiff had a reasonable, good-faith belief that a violation occurred; that he acted on it; that the employer knew of the plaintiff's conduct; and that the employer lashed out in consequence of it. See Petitti, 909 F.2d at 33; Manoharan v. Columbia Univ. College of Physicians & Surgeons, 842 F.2d 590, 593 (2d Cir.1988).
Once a prima facie case is delineated, the burden shifts to the defendant to articulate a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for its employment decision. See McNairn v. Sullivan, 929 F.2d 974, 980 (4th Cir.1991); Petitti, 909 F.2d at 34. If this is accomplished, the ultimate burden falls on the plaintiff to show that the employer's proffered reason is a pretext masking retaliation for the employee's opposition to a practice cast into doubt by the ADEA. See Dominic v. Consolidated Edison Co., 822 F.2d 1249, 1254 (2d Cir.1987); see also EEOC v. Hacienda Hotel, 881 F.2d 1504, 1514 (9th Cir.1989) (Title VII retaliation case); Williams v. Cerberonics, Inc., 871 F.2d 452, 457 (4th Cir.1989) (same). As in the discrimination context proper, courts confronted by summary judgment motions must at this point focus on the ultimate question, scrapping the burden-shifting framework in favor of considering the evidence as a whole. See supra pp. 824-825; see also Cerberonics, 871 F.2d at 458 (in determining whether it is appropriate to take a retaliation case from the jury, a reviewing court's focus must be on "the evidence as a whole"). Thus, the critical inquiry becomes whether the aggregate evidence of pretext and retaliatory animus suffices to make out a jury question.
If we assume, arguendo, that the plaintiff established a prima facie case of retaliation, then, given the defendant's forceful articulation of a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason justifying its actions, see supra Part III(B), the case boils down to what we have termed the ultimate question: did Mesnick present sufficient evidence that GE's stated reason was a pretext for retaliation? We think the answer to this query is in the negative.
Here, the very chronology of the case militates against a finding that Mesnick's evidence was sufficiently robust to thwart brevis disposition. His first complaint of age discrimination was made informally in a memorandum he sent to Capodici on April 23, 1987. Almost nine months later, he filed charges with the EEOC. Not only is this a long gestation period, during which Mesnick's employment remained substantially intact, but GE also offered evidence of insubordination and inimicality that antedated either of these events. Moreover, after Mesnick first enlisted the EEOC, he remained in GE's employ for another nine months, more or less, before he was finally fired (and then, only after committing a particularly provocative act in outright defiance of an unmistakably aposematic admonition). We think the sequence of events in this case suggests the absence of a causal connection between the statutorily protected conduct and the adverse employment action, not the converse. Cf., e.g., Oliver v. Digital Equipment Corp., 846 F.2d 103, 110-11 (1st Cir.1988) (long period of delay between initial EEOC complaint and ultimate discharge negates inference of retaliation).
In addition to this lack of temporal coincidence, we can find no other competent evidence of retaliation. Mesnick's proof related exclusively to whether business decisions made by the company in its efforts to deal with an employee it perceived as insubordinate were, or were not, plausible. He tendered nothing, direct or circumstantial, suggesting a retaliatory animus. To the contrary, the record, read as a whole, is more consistent with an employer's longstanding desire to improve an employee's behavior than with some sort of vengeful preoccupation. We can, after all, safely conclude, on the basis of undisputed facts, that GE for many months endured conduct on Mesnick's part which was much more antagonistic and disruptive than his eventual resort to the EEOC.
To be sure, GE knew, at the time Mesnick was dismissed, that he was pursuing an age discrimination claim. But, that kind of knowledge on an employer's part, without more, cannot itself be sufficient to take a retaliation case to the jury. Were the rule otherwise, then a disgruntled employee, no matter how poor his performance or how contemptuous his attitude toward his supervisors, could effectively inhibit a well-deserved discharge by merely filing, or threatening to file, a discrimination complaint. We agree with the Eighth Circuit that, while statutes such as the ADEA bar retaliation for exercising rights guaranteed by law, they do "not clothe the complainant with immunity for past and
Because we do not believe a reasonable jury could find in the plaintiff's favor on the issue of retaliatory animus, summary judgment was proper.
We need go no further. The plaintiff's failure to adduce evidence supporting an inference of discriminatory or retaliatory motive was, as the district court perspicaciously discerned, fatal to his case in its several permutations.