Nos. 90-2383, 90-2470.

932 F.2d 611 (1991)

UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Elsa RAMOS and Jairo Ramos, Defendants-Appellants.

United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit.

Decided May 8, 1991.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Edward G. Kohler, Barry R. Elden, and Lisa Huestis, Asst. U.S. Attys., Office of the United States Attorney, Criminal Receiving, Appellate Div., Chicago, Ill., for the U.S.

John A. Meyer, Chicago, Ill., for Elsa Ramos.

Richard R. Mottweiler, Chicago, Ill., for Jairo Ramos.

Before WOOD, JR., and KANNE, Circuit Judges, and FAIRCHILD, Senior Circuit Judge.

HARLINGTON WOOD, JR., Circuit Judge.

A "reverse buy" netted three defendants, all of whom were convicted. Two of the defendants, Elsa and Jairo Ramos, filed appeals that were consolidated by this court. For the following reasons, we affirm the rulings that they challenge.


A. Factual Background

On November 6, 1989, Benny Perez paged Jose Olivier and attempted to arrange a narcotics purchase. There are two notable twists, however...

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