Celotex Corporation's Motion for Summary Judgment was granted in this case when a non-party affiant's deposition was inconsistent with his prior affidavit. The District Court held the inconsistencies created a sham affidavit and considered only the deposition testimony in granting summary judgment. We do not find the original affidavit inherently inconsistent with the deposition and hold that any question of credibility or weight to be given to the evidence resulting from variances between an affidavit and deposition is a question of fact for the trier of fact, be it the judge or jury. We therefore, reverse the District Court's grant of summary judgment and remand for further proceedings to consider all of the evidence including both the deposition and the affidavit.
Mrs. Nell Tippens brought suit against Celotex Corporation (Celotex) individually and on behalf of her deceased husband. William Tippens worked at Brunswick Shipyard as a pipefitter on ships of the United States Navy and the Merchant Marines, among others. After serving in the Army, and holding several other jobs, Mr. Tippens worked for twenty-seven years as a supervisor for ITT Rayonier in Jesup, Georgia. Mrs. Tippens alleges that while her husband was employed as a supervisor at ITT Rayonier and as a pipefitter at Brunswick Shipyards, he was exposed to asbestos containing products that were mined, manufactured, and sold by Celotex.
In response to Celotex's motion for summary judgment, Tippens submitted the affidavit of a coworker, Frank McIntyre, which stated that McIntyre used several products, including those of the defendant Celotex, while working in close proximity to William Lawrence Tippens.
Celotex, along with the other defendants, deposed Frank McIntyre. During his deposition, McIntyre was unable to pinpoint any specific instances where he worked in close proximity to William Tippens while using the defendant's product. McIntyre was also unable to identify any specific instances when he used Celotex's asbestos containing products or to identify which Celotex products contained asbestos. However, McIntyre was able to state that he did use Celotex's products. The apparent inconsistency between the affidavit and
Based on the inconsistencies in McIntyre's deposition, Celotex moved for reconsideration of their motion for summary judgment. The District Court reconsidered and granted the motion.
It's Been Said Before
The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure provide for summary judgment when "the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." F.R.Civ.P. 56(c). The District Court shall consider all evidence in the record when reviewing a motion for summary judgment — pleadings, depositions, interrogatories, affidavits, etc. — and can only grant summary judgment "if everything in the record ... demonstrates that no genuine issue of material fact exists." Keiser v. Coliseum Properties, Inc., 614 F.2d 406, 410 (5th Cir.1980) (emphasis in original).
If one or more of the essential elements is in doubt, then summary judgment must not be granted. Summary judgment is such a lethal weapon, depriving a litigant of a trial on the issue, caution must
This court decided an almost identical case against the same defendant earlier this year. In Lane v. Celotex Corp., 782 F.2d 1526, 1528 (11th Circuit 1986), we stated:
The Sham Affidavit Concept
The Second Circuit announced the proposition that a court may disregard an affidavit as a matter of law when it determines that the affidavit is a sham in Perma Research and Development Co. v. Singer Co., 410 F.2d 572 (2nd Cir.1969). As recounted by this court in Lane, the Second Circuit's decision in Perma Research involved a plaintiff who claimed fraud but disclosed no specifics of the fraud claim during extensive depositions. He later filed an affidavit which disclosed the specifics and thus was blatantly inconsistent with his earlier affidavit. "If a party who has been examined at length on deposition could raise an issue of fact simply by submitting an affidavit contradicting his own prior testimony, this would greatly diminish the utility of summary judgment as a procedure for screening out sham issues of fact." Perma Research at 578. The Second Circuit determined that any issue raised by affidavit which was flatly contradicted by an earlier deposition was so suspect of untruthfulness as to be disregarded as a matter of law.
The Eleventh Circuit accepted the proposition that an affidavit can be disregarded when it constitutes a sham in Van T. Junkins and Associates v. U.S. Industries, 736 F.2d 656 (11th Cir.1984). In that case the President of Van T. Junkins "made crystal clear in three places in the deposition" that there was no condition attached to their agreement that he was required to purchase one of their buildings in order to be awarded a dealership. Id. 657. He later submitted an affidavit stating that he would be awarded the dealership only if he would purchase one of their buildings. This court held that the affidavit should be disregarded as a sham. Its flat contradiction to the earlier deposition was unexplained and therefore was inadequate to raise a genuine issue of fact which was denied to exist by the earlier deposition.
Discrepancies: Credibility or Sham
A definite distinction must be made between discrepancies which create transparent shams and discrepancies which create an issue of credibility or go to the weight of the evidence. "An opposing party's affidavit should be considered although it differs from or varies [from] his evidence as given by deposition or another affidavit and the two in conjunction may disclose an issue of credibility." 6 Moore's Federal Practice ¶ 56.15 (2d ed. 1985) (footnote omitted).
The purpose of summary judgment is to separate real, genuine issues from those which are formal or pretended. To allow every failure of memory or variation in a witness's testimony to be disregarded as a sham would require far too much from lay witnesses and would deprive the trier of fact of the traditional opportunity to determine which point in
Kennett-Murray Corp. v. Bone, 622 F.2d 887, 894 (5th Cir.1980).
Applying these principles to the instant case, we find that the affidavit is not inherently inconsistent with the deposition testimony. The affidavit should have been considered with everything in the record resolving all doubts in favor of the nonmoving party. See Adickes and Keiser.
McIntyre's affidavit states that Tippens was his supervisor and worked in close proximity with him during the period when he was using Celotex's asbestos containing products. In his deposition, McIntyre was unable to state any specific instances when he was using a specific product while Tippens was standing next to him. Although a jury may find this discrepancy in McIntyre's testimony to affect his credibility or to diminish its persuasiveness, it is not so inherently inconsistent that the court must disregard the previous affidavit as a matter of law. When considering all the evidence in the record in a light most favorable to the nonmoving party, sufficient evidence exists to raise a genuine issue of material fact.
Tippens was the supervisor at ITT Rayonier and as supervisor he worked closely with the employees which he supervised. Celotex's asbestos containing products were used by the employees during the time Tippens was the supervisor. McIntyre's inability to identify a specific instance when he worked with Celotex's asbestos containing products while his supervisor was standing next to him does not create an irreconcilable conflict with his deposition testimony such that the court would be required to disregard his earlier testimony as a sham. McIntyre testified that his supervisor worked closely with him when he was using insulating products, of which some were manufactured by Celotex. McIntyre's inability to cite specific instances when he was using Celotex's asbestos containing products while his supervisor was in close proximity to him is not an irreconcilable conflict.
In Van T. Junkins, the deposition clearly stated in three places that their agreement contained no requirement to purchase a building in order to obtain the contract. The affidavit later stated that there was an agreement to purchase a building in order to obtain the contract. The contradictory affidavit in Van T. Junkins
In comparison, McIntyre's statement is evidence that impeaches his memory, and impairs the probative weight of his testimony. Because assessing the credibility and weight of the evidence are questions of fact for the trier of fact, the District Court's grant of summary judgment was improper. We therefore reverse the District Court's grant of summary judgment and remand for further proceedings in light of all the evidence in the record viewed in a light most favorable to the nonmoving party.
REVERSED and REMANDED.
HILL, Circuit Judge, specially concurring:
I agree with the majority's conclusion that this appeal is controlled by this court's decision in Lane v. Celotex Corp., 782 F.2d 1526 (11th Cir.1985). Faced with this binding precedent, I agree that the district court's grant of summary judgment should be reversed. I concur specially to reiterate my dissatisfaction with the Lane holding. See Lane v. Celotex Corp., 782 F.2d 1526, 1533 (11th Cir.1985) (Hill, J., dissenting).
The Lane decision drastically limits this court's holding in Van T. Junkins & Associates v. U.S. Industries, 736 F.2d 656 (11th Cir.1984). In Van T. Junkins, this court declared: "When a party has given clear answers to unambiguous questions which negate the existence of any genuine issue of material fact, that party cannot thereafter create such an issue with an affidavit that merely contradicts, without explanation, previously given clear testimony." Id. at 657. The purpose of this rule is to spare the party requesting summary judgment the needless pain and costs of a law suit when a party's prior statements show no factual dispute exists. This rule further assures that frivolous law suits will not deluge the federal court system, otherwise consuming scarce judicial resources which would best be allocated to meritorious claims. The life of a frivolous suit should not be extended merely by a last minute affidavit which is contrary to a party's or an interested witness' admissions, unless there is some tangible basis for explaining the blatant inconsistencies.
If I were writing on a clean slate, I would conclude that Frank McIntyre was an interested witness due to the fact that, like William Tippens, he filed a similar suit seeking recovery for his exposure to asbestos and is represented by the same counsel that represents Mrs. Tippens. I would also conclude that McIntyre's affidavit was inherently inconsistent with his later disposition. The facts of this case, however, cannot be meaningfully distinguished from those in Lane v. Celotex Corp. Therefore, I concur.
Deposition of Frank McIntyre at 31-35, 42-43; see also Supplemental Brief for Appellant at 4.
We make no formal ruling on the admissibility of this evidence because the District Court has not yet ruled on it. The trial court must first determine the admissibility of evidence before considering it in opposition to a motion for summary judgment. Clemons v. Dougherty County, 684 F.2d 1365 (1982); Pan-Islamic Trade Corp. v. Exxon Corp., 632 F.2d 539, 556 (5th Cir.1980), cert. denied, 454 U.S. 927, 102 S.Ct. 427, 70 L.Ed.2d 236 (1981). We mention this here for completeness because we find it highly probative and likely to be held admissible under Fed.R.Evid. 804.