Civ. A. No. 83-C-1676-S.

628 F.Supp. 1137 (1985)

UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff, John F. Knight, Jr., et al., individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, Plaintiffs-Intervenors, Board of Trustees of Alabama State University and Alabama A & M University, Realigned Plaintiffs, v. The STATE OF ALABAMA; George C. Wallace, Governor of the State of Alabama; the Alabama State Board of Education; Wayne Teague, State Superintendent of Education; Auburn University, a public corporation; Jacksonville State University, a public corporation; Livingston University, a public corporation; Troy State University, a public corporation; the University of Montevallo, a public corporation; the Board of Trustees for the University of Alabama, a public corporation; the University of North Alabama, a public corporation; the University of South Alabama, a public corporation; the Alabama Commission on Higher Education; and the Alabama Public School and College Authority, Defendants.

United States District Court, N.D. Alabama, S.D.

December 7, 1985.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Frank W. Donaldson, Caryl P. Privett, William French Smith, Atty. Gen., Wm. Bradford Reynolds, Asst. Atty. Gen., Nathaniel Douglas, Franz Marshall, Jeanne K. Pettenati, Levern M. Younger, Angela Schmidt, Jeremiah Glassman, Pauline A. Miller, Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., for plaintiffs.

Ronald W. Wise, Joan Van Almon, Ira De Ment, De Ment & Wise, Montgomery, Ala., for Wallace and Alabama Com'n of Higher Educ. & Al Public School & College Authority.

Walter J. Merrill, Anniston Ala., for Jacksonville State University.

Joe R. Whatley, Jr., John C. Falkenberry, Falkenberry, Whatley & Heidt, Birmingham, Ala., for Board of Trustees for Alabama A & M.

Donald V. Watkins, Watkins, Carter & Knight, Montgomery, Ala., James U. Blacksher, Larry T. Menefee, Blacksher, Menefee & Stein, Mobile, Ala., for intervenors.

Fred D. Gray, Gray, Langford, Sapp, Davis & Mc Gowan, Tuskegee, Ala., Robert J. Lipshutz, Lipshutz, Frankel, Greenblatt, King & Cohen, Atlanta, Ga., for intervenors amicus curiae: The National Bar Ass'n and The American Jewish Congress.

William F. Gardner, Cabaniss, Johnston, Gardner, Dumas & O'Neil, Birmingham, Ala., Joseph J. Levin, Jr., Sanford, Adams, McCullough & Beard, Washington, D.C., for defendant-intervenor, University of Alabama Huntsville Foundation.

Alan R. Engel, Engel & Smith, Mobile, Ala., Maxey J. Roberts, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Ala., for University of South Alabama.

Richard F. Calhoun, Brantley & Calhoun, Troy, Ala., for Troy State University.

J. Fredric Ingram, William F. Murray, Jr., Thomas, Taliaferro, Forman, Burr & Murray, Birmingham, Ala., for Livingston University.

J. Scott Green, Carl E. Johnson, Jr., Burgin Kent, Birmingham, Ala., Frank Ellis, Jr., Wallace, Ellis, Head & Fowler, Columbiana, Ala., for University of Montevallo.

C. Glenn Powell, Robert L. Potts, University, Ala., for Board of Trustees of University of Alabama.

Demetrius C. Newton, Birmingham, Ala., for intervenors the University Legal Defense Fund and the National Alumni Normalite Ass'n.

J. Richmond Pearson, Birmingham, Ala., for proposed intervenors Oscar Williams, Jr. and R. Franklin Williams.

Charles S. Coody, Jeffery A. Foshee, State Dept. of Educ., Montgomery, Ala., for Wayne Teague, Superintendent of Educ. for State of Alabama and Alabama State Bd. of Educ.

John Richard Carrigan, Edward S. Allen, Balch, Bingham, Baker, Ward, Smith, Bowman & Thagard, M. Stanford Blanton and David R. Boyd, Birmingham, Ala., Thomas W. Thagard, Jr., Montgomery, Ala., Thomas D. Samford, III, Samford & Samford, Opelika, Ala., for Auburn University.

T. Michael Putnam, Ernest Blasingame, Potts, Young, Blasingame & Suttle, Florence, Ala., for University of North Alabama.

Solomon S. Seay, Jr., Terry Davis, Montgomery, Ala., for Board of Trustees for Alabama State.

Robert W. Rieder, Jr., John O. Cates, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Ala.

Armand Derfner, Charleston, S.C., for Alabama State University.

Charles Self, University of Alabama in Birmingham, Ala.


Introduction .....................................  1140

I.    The Historical Development of the
      Dual System of Higher Education ............  1140

      A. University of Alabama .................... 1140
         Autherine Lucy ........................... 1141
         Stand In Schoolhouse Door ................ 1143
      B. Auburn Polytechnic Institute ............. 1144
         Harold Franklin Admission ................ 1144

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