STALEY, Circuit Judge.
This is a secondary boycott case in which the National Labor Relations Board ("Board") seeks enforcement of an order
Riss employed a number of union members as drivers to perform local pickup and delivery services in the Philadelphia area. This operation was conducted from a Philadelphia terminal owned by persons who also held all the stock in Riss. The terminal was shared with four other freight carriers including Cartage and Terminal Corporation ("Cartage"), and Salem Express ("Salem"). On December 23, 1959, Riss notified the drivers that beginning with January 1, 1960, Cartage would perform all of Riss' local pickup and delivery
To support the § 8(b) (4) (i) and (ii) (B) findings, the Board relied first on what it called the Royce incident that took place on December 29, 1959. The record shows that twice on December 29, 1959, several men unhooked a Riss trailer that was attached to a tractor driven by George Royce, an employee of Cumberland Transport. The first unhooking took place at the Riss terminal and the second at the Pennsylvania Railroad piggyback yard in Philadelphia. The Board also relies on events that occurred at the North Penn Transfer Company terminal where on January 20, 1960, a shipment was received from Riss on interline. Thereafter, North Penn employees, who were also members of the union, refused to handle Riss freight. Lastly, the Board points to picketing of the Riss terminal beginning on December 29, 1959.
The union does not challenge the Board's conclusion that a § 8(b) (1) (A) unfair labor practice was committed. The attack is concentrated on the Board's finding that the union violated § 8(b) (4) (i) and (ii) (B), which provide that it shall be an unfair labor practice for a union or its agents:
More particularly, the union contends that there is no evidence in the record showing that the men who accosted Royce were acting on behalf of the union, and that the union cannot, therefore, be charged with responsibility for the incident. As to the North Penn occurrence, the union says that a refusal to handle goods is simply a form of economic coercion not involving the use of force or violence which must take place before a § 8(b) (4) (ii) violation can be found. As to the picketing, the union contends that in light of the fact that picketing has at all times been limited to the Riss terminal and directed against Riss only, the picketing is primary in nature and protected under the Moore Dry Dock doctrine previously enunciated by the Board.
Turning to the union's responsibility for the Royce incident, Royce testified that as he entered the Riss terminal a number of men whom he recognized as Riss drivers hailed him and asked what he was doing with a Riss trailer. After Royce said that he was delivering an empty Riss trailer to New Jersey, these same men informed him that they were on strike against Riss and ordered him to drop the trailer. The men proceeded to unhook the trailer while Royce was at a telephone calling the Salem dispatcher for further instructions. After giving a false destination, Royce drove back to the Pennsylvania Railroad yards where, while hooking up a Riss trailer, he was again approached by union pickets who unhitched his trailer and ordered him to leave and not to pick up anything with a Riss name on it. At the time these events occurred, Riss had already notified its drivers that Cartage would perform local pickup and delivery services as of January 1, 1960. The Board had before it evidence that on the day following the Royce incident, pickets representing the union appeared at the terminal and obstructed the ingress and egress of Salem trailers which were carrying Riss freight on interline. On that same day, pickets numbering from ten to twenty also blocked the egress and
From an examination of the pertinent legislative history, we are convinced that § 8(b) (4) (ii) (B) prohibits economic sanctions against a secondary employer in the form of a refusal by a union which represents employees of both the primary and secondary employer to handle a primary employer's goods.
Section 8(b) (4) (ii) (B) was enacted as an amendment to the Act when the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 ("LMRDA"), 29 U.S.C.A. § 401 et seq., was passed. When the LMRDA left committee and was introduced in the Senate, it contained no provisions dealing with secondary boycotts.
Senator Curtis, a cosponsor of the amendment, further particularized its scope when during debate he said:
The amendment was attacked during debate in the Senate largely because it was not limited to the use of force or violence.
Later, Representative Griffin again referred to the secondary boycott provision during debate and gave an example of what it was meant to cover. He said:
That provision was enacted by the House and passed by the Senate after the conference committee report was accepted.
The evidence here established the type of economic coercion that the Act proscribed. The record shows that on January 20, 1960, a shipment from Riss arrived at the North Penn terminal. The terminal manager himself was forced to handle the shipment after the union steward indicated that employees would not handle Riss goods unless clearance was first obtained from the union. There is substantial evidence to support the Board's conclusion that on the following day the union steward called and spoke to one of the union's business agents concerning the status of Riss goods. Unchallenged evidence shows that immediately thereafter the union steward informed the terminal manager that the employees would no longer handle Riss goods because of the union's dispute with Riss. When a shipment arrived at the North Penn terminal on January 25, the employees refused to handle the goods.
The Riss terminal constituted a common situs, i. e., a common place of operation utilized by two or more employers. A common situs situation frequently requires the courts to determine whether the picketing is primary or secondary in nature. The fine and elusive line that separates primary from secondary picketing was made bolder and darker by the Board's decision in Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 92 N.L.R.B. 547 (1950). The Board there set out four standards, usually referred to as the Moore Dry Dock doctrine, for determining whether such picketing is presumptively valid primary activity: (1) that the picketing be limited to times when the situs of the dispute was located on secondary premises; (2) that the primary employer be engaged in his normal business at the situs; (3) that the picketing take place reasonably close to the situs; and (4) that the picketing clearly demonstrate that the dispute was only with the primary employer. Compliance with these standards, however, at most gives the picketing only presumptive validity. Local 761, International Union of Electrical Radio & Machine Workers, A.F.L.-C.I.O. v. N. L. R. B., 366 U.S. 667, 81 S.Ct. 1285, 6 L.Ed.2d 592 (1961). Even under that doctrine, the union must conduct its picketing so as to minimize the impact thereof on the secondary employer, Retail Fruit & Vegetable Clerks' Union, 116 N.L.R.B. 856
Rather than complying with the fourth requirement of the Moore Dry Dock doctrine, the union here, by deliberate acts, made it perfectly clear that the picketing was not limited to the primary employer. On December 30, 1959, the union's pickets physically obstructed the ingress and egress of Salem trucks at the Riss terminal in those cases where Riss freight was being transported. Violence erupted a few days later. One of the several acts of violence that took place on January 4, 1960, involved a Cartage driver who was stopped by pickets as he was attempting to cross the picket line and told by a union steward carrying a meathook that "I'll bring this down over your head if you try to move that truck out of this yard. I'll get you." The same union steward told a vice president of Cartage that he was the "son-of-a-bitch that started all of this. I'm going to get you, too." Similar threats were made to another Cartage driver who crossed the picket line on January 7 and 11, 1960.
The union makes a final point concerning the scope of the Board's order. That order prohibited the union from inducing or encouraging any individual employed by Salem, Cartage, North Penn "or any other person" to engage in a strike in order to force those employers to cease doing business with Riss. The order also prohibits the union from threatening, coercing, or restraining Salem, Cartage, North Penn or "any other person" to force such persons to cease doing business with Riss. The union says that the evidence does not support the inclusion of the particular employers in the order, and that use of the phrase "any other person" is prohibited by the Supreme Court's decision in Communications Workers of America, A.F.L.-C.I.O. v. N. L. R. B., 362 U.S. 479, 80 S.Ct. 838, 4 L.Ed.2d 896 (1960). In regard to the question before us, the Court in N. L. R. B. v. Express Publishing Co., 312 U.S. 426, 437, 61 S.Ct. 693, 700, 85 L.Ed. 930 (1941), said:
A broad order is permitted where the evidence shows the existence of a general scheme, pattern or course of conduct contemptuous of the Act. N. L. R. B. v. Local 522, Lumber Drivers, 294 F.2d 811 (C.A.3, 1961).
There is a strong factual basis in the record showing that the union has unlawfully interfered with the activity of employers other than Riss. That, coupled with what the Board described as the union's obvious "proclivity to engage in unlawful secondary activity" when and where such conduct suits its purpose convinces us that the order should be enforced in its entirety.
A decree for enforcement of the order of the Board may be submitted.