MR. JUSTICE SUTHERLAND delivered the opinion of the Court.
Appellant assails as invalid a statute of the State of Washington which levies an excise tax of fifteen cents per pound on all butter substitutes sold within the state. Every distributor of such butter substitutes is required to file a duly acknowledged certificate with the Director of Agricultural, containing the name under which the distributor is transacting business with the state and other specified information. Sale of any butter substitute is forbidden until such certificate is furnished. The distributor must render to the Director of Agricultural, on the fifteenth day of each month, a sworn statement of the
Appellant is a Washington corporation, and has for many years been engaged in importing and selling "Nucoa," a form of oleomargarine. Prior to the passage of the act, it had derived a large annual net profit from sales made within the state. Since then, claiming the tax to be prohibitive, it has made no intrastate sales and no effort to do so. "Nucoa" is a nutritious and pure article of food, with a well established place in the dietary.
Suit was brought to enjoin the enforcement of the act, on the ground that it violates the Federal Constitution in the following particulars: (1) that the imposition of the tax has the effect of depriving complainant of its property without due process of law and of denying to it the equal protection of the laws, in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment; (2) that the tax is not levied for a public purpose, but for the sole purpose of burdening or prohibiting the manufacture, importation and sale of oleomargarine, in aid of the dairy industry; (3) that the act imposes an unjust and discriminatory burden upon interstate commerce; and (4) that it interferes with the power of Congress to levy and collect taxes, imposts and excises, in violation of Art. I, § 8.
The case came before a statutory court of three judges, under § 266 of the Judicial Code, as amended, 28 U.S.C., § 380, first upon an application for an interlocutory injunction, which was denied, 2 F.Supp. 414, and subsequently
First. We put aside at once all of the foregoing contentions, except the one relating to due process of law, as being plainly without merit. 1. In respect of the equal protection clause it is obvious that the differences between butter and oleomargarine are sufficient to justify their separate classification for purposes of taxation. 2. That the tax is for a public purpose is equally clear, since that requirement has regard to the use which it to be made of the revenuer derived from the tax, and not to any ulterior motive or purpose which may have influenced the legislature in passing the act. And a tax designed to be expended for a public purpose does not cease to be one levied for that purpose because it has the effect of imposing a burden upon one class of business enterprises in such a way as to benefit another class. 3. The act, considered as a whole, clearly negatives the idea that a burden is imposed upon interstate commerce, as the court below held. The tax is confined to sales within the state, and (§§ 10 and 13, supra) has no application to sales of oleomargarine to be either imported or exported in interstate commerce. 4. The contention that the act interferes with the taxing power of the United States seems to be based upon the supposition that the state tax is so great that it will put an end to the sale of oleomargarine within the State of Washington, and thereby destroy a potential subject of federal taxation. Assuming such a consequence and putting other question aside, the effect of it upon appellant would be so remote, speculative and indirect as to afford appellant no basis for invoking the powers of a court of equity. Compare Massachusetts v. Mellon, 262 U.S. 447, 487; Florida v. Mellon, 273 U.S. 12, 17-18.
The point may be conceded that the tax is so excessive that it may or will result in destroying the intrastate business of appellant; but that is precisely the point which was made in the attack upon the validity of the ten per cent tax imposed upon the notes of state banks involved in Veazie Bank v. Fenno, 8 Wall. 533, 548. This court there disposed of it by saying that the courts are without authority to prescribe limitations upon the exercise of the acknowledged powers of the legislative departments. "The power to tax may be exercised oppressively upon persons, but the responsibility of the legislature is not to the courts, but to the people by whom its members are elected." Again, in the McCray case, supra, answering a like contention, this court said (p. 59) that the argument rested upon the proposition "that, although the tax be within the power, as enforcing it will destroy or restrict the manufacture of artificially colored oleomargarine, therefore the power to levy the tax did not obtain. This, however, is but to say that the question of power depends, not upon the authority conferred by the Constitution, but upon what may be the consequence arising from the exercise of the lawful authority." And it was held that if a tax be within the lawful power of the legislature, the exertion of the power may not he restrained because of the results to arise from its exercise.
In Alaska Fish Co. v. Smith, supra, 48-49, a statute of Alaska levying a heavy license tax upon persons manufacturing fish oil, etc., was upheld as constitutional against the contention that it would prohibit and confiscate plaintiff's
In the Child Labor Tax Case, supra, this court, in holding unconstitutional the provisions of the Revenue Act of February 24, 1919, imposing a tax upon the employment of child labor, fully recognized the foregoing limitations upon the judicial authority; but declared that the act constituted an attempt to regulate a matter exclusively within the control of the state, and that, although the exaction was called a tax, it was, in fact, not a tax but a penalty exacted for the violation of the regulation. "Taxes are occasionally imposed," it was said (p. 38), "in the discretion of the legislature on proper subjects with the primary motive of obtaining revenue from them and with the incidental motive of discouraging them by making their continuance onerous. They do not lose their character as taxes because of the incidental motive. But there comes a time in the extension of the penalizing features of the so-called tax when it loses its character as such and becomes a merely penalty with the characteristics of regulation and punishment. Such is the case in the law before us."
The statute here under review if in form plainly a taxing act, with nothing in its terms to suggest that it was intended to be anything else. It must be construed, and the intent and meaning of the legislature ascertained, from the language of the act, and the words used therein
From the beginning of our government, the courts have sustained taxes although imposed with the collateral intent of effecting ulterior ends which, considered apart, were beyond the constitutional power of the lawmakers to realize by legislation directly addressed to their accomplishment. Those decisions, as the foregoing discussion discloses, rule the present case.