MR. JUSTICE BLATCHFORD delivered the opinion of the court.
This is a suit in equity, brought January 29, 1879, in the Circuit Court of the United States for the District of Massachusetts, by the Yale Lock Manufacturing Company, a Connecticut corporation, and James Sargent and Halbert S. Greenleaf, composing the firm of Sargent & Greenleaf, against the Berkshire National Bank, a national banking corporation doing business at North Adams, in Massachusetts.
The suit was brought for the infringement of two reissued letters patent. One of them is reissue No. 7947, granted November 13, 1877, to James Sargent, as inventor, for an "improvement in combined time-lock, combination lock, and bolt-work for safes," on an application filed October 3, 1877, the original patent, No. 195,539, having been granted to Sargent, September 25, 1877. Only claim 3 of reissue No.
After the filing of the bill, and by agreement of the parties, Joseph L. Hall, of Cincinnati, Ohio, was admitted as a defendant. An amended bill was filed, and the bank and Hall answered it. As to both reissues, the answer denied that, before they were granted, the patents were inoperative by reason of a defective or insufficient specification; that any errors arose by inadvertency, accident and mistake; that any reissues were necessary or are valid; and that the reissues were for the same inventions as were shown and described in the original patents. It also set up want of novelty and non-infringement.
After replication, proofs were taken on both sides, and the case was heard in the Circuit Court by Judge Lowell. His opinion is reported in 17 Fed. Rep. 531. He held that claim 3 of the Sargent reissue, No. 7947, was invalid, and ordered a decree for the plaintiffs as to claims 1 and 7 of the Little reissue, No. 8550. On the 14th of August, 1883, an interlocutory decree was entered, adjudging reissue No. 8550 to be valid, as to claims 1 and 7; that the defendants had infringed those claims; and ordering a reference to a master to take an account of profits and to report damages.
In July, 1884, the defendants were allowed to amend their answer by setting up an additional anticipation of the Little patent, proofs were taken thereon, and the case was reheard, before Judge Colt, on the new evidence. He affirmed the former decree, in an opinion reported in 26 Fed. Rep. 104.
The master reported $60 damages in favor of the plaintiffs, and both parties excepted to the report. A final decree was
The respective specifications and claims of the original Sargent patent, No. 195,539, and of its reissue, No. 7947, are set forth below in parallel columns, the parts in each which are not found in the other being in italic. The drawings are the same in both.
Original patent, No. 195,539. Reissue No. 7947. "Be it known that I, James "Be it known that I, James Sargent, of the city of Rochester, Sargent, of the city of Rochester, in the county of Monroe in the county of Monroe and State of New York, have and State of New York, have invented a certain new and invented a certain new and useful improvement in locks; useful improvement in combined and I do hereby declare that time-locks, combination-locks, the following is a full, clear, and bolt-work for safe and and exact description of the vault doors; and I do hereby construction and operation of declare that the following is a the same, reference being had full, clear, and exact description to the accompanying drawings, of the construction and in which figure 1 is an operation of the same, reference elevation of my improvement being had to the accompanying applied to a safe-door. Fig. 2 drawings, in which figure is a section of the bolt of the 1 illustrates a portion of a time-lock. Fig. 3 is an inside safe or vault door having thereon view of the same. Fig. 4 represents a time-lock and a combination detached views of the lock, both of said locks being dial, pallet, and escape-wheel. represented in a locked condition, Fig. 5 is a bolt constructed as with the bolt-work projected integral with the holding-latch. and locked. Fig. 2 illustrates one form of lock-bolt or obstruction
for use in a time-lock. Fig. 3 illustrates an inside view of said lock-bolt or obstruction. Fig. 4 represents detached views of the pallet and escape-wheel, and a portion of one of the revolving dials. Fig. 5 illustrates another form of lock-bolt or obstruction for use in connection with the time-lock for admitting of locking or unlocking of the bolt-work. "My invention consists, first, in the combination with the bolt-work of a safe or vault-door, of a time-lock and a combination or key-lock, both constructed to be applied on a safe, vault, or other door, so as to rest against or connect with the bolt-work on said door, and provided with a device whereby the bolt-work may be retained in the unlocked position for shutting the door, and be automatically locked by the lock-bolt or obstruction of the time-lock, and mechanically by the combination or key lock, the whole so arranged that the bolt-work cannot be withdrawn when locked till both locks have been unlocked; second, in the combination of a time-lock and a combination or key-lock, both constructed to be applied on a safe, vault, or other door, so as
to rest against the bolt-work, each of said locks being provided with a lock-bolt or obstruction, that of the combination-lock or key-lock being of the usual construction, while that of the time-lock has an opening or offset, which is automatically brought into and out of coincidence with the tongue of the bolt-work, whereby the bolt-work may be retained in the unlocked position for shutting the door, and prevented from being retracted when locked, until both locks have been unlocked; third, in the combination, with the bolt-work of a safe or vault-door, of a combination-lock, controllable mechanically from the exterior of said door, with a time-lock, controllable automatically for unlocking by the operation of its time mechanism, both of said locks arranged to control the locking and unlocking of the bolt-work, so that said safe or vault-door cannot be opened when locked until both of said locks have been unlocked or released their dogging action to enable the door to be opened, substantially as hereinafter described. "My improvement relates to "The construction and arrangement that class in which two independent of the time-lock will locks are employed be more fully hereinafter described;
upon a safe, vault, or other door but it is evident that for the purpose of preventing any form or construction of a the unlocking of the door-bolts time-lock may be used as a until both locks have been unlocked. part constituting one element Combination or key-locks of the combination called for locks have only heretofore been in my claims. used for this purpose, so far "Combination or key-locks as I am aware. As such locks have heretofore been used by are set on combinations, or operated bankers and others for the purpose by means of keys, burglars of preventing the unlocking can force the holders of of the bolt-work of a safe or the combination or key to unlock vault-door; but as such locks lock the door, and hence such are "set on" combinations, or locks are not a perfect safeguard operated by means of keys, against robbery. Clock-locks burglars can force the holders have also been used upon of the "combination" or key doors for the purpose of opening to unlock the combination-lock the door only at a determined or locks, and thus admit of the hour, thus placing it bolt-work being retracted and beyond the power of any person the door thrown open. Therefore to open the door until that such locks are not a safeguard hour arrives; but so far as I against robbery. am aware, such locks have "Clock-locks have also been either been used singly on a used upon safe or vault-doors door (in which case when the for the purpose of opening the lock releases the bolt or other door at a pre-determined hour, fastening the door is unlocked thus placing it beyond the and may be opened by any power of any person, until the one,) or else a time-movement arrival of the appointed time, has been combined directly to open the door; but as far with a lock in such a manner as I am aware such clock-locks that the two really constitute have either been used singly but a single lock, in which case on a safe-door, so that, when if violence is applied to the said lock released the bolt-work lock it at once destroys the or other fastening of the efficiency of the time movement. said door it was unlocked, and the door could be opened by
"My invention consists, primarily, any one, or, in another instance, in the combination, with when a time-movement the door-bolt, of a clock-lock and had been combined with a a combination or key-lock applied combination-lock in such a separately upon the door, manner that the two really having each an independent action, constituted but a single lock, whereby the clock-lock will the time mechanism constructed not release its bolt until a certain and provided with a lever to determined hour, and when engage with the fence or dog of it does release its bolt the combination the combination-lock, so that the or key-lock still remains entire mechanism of the time-movement locked and secures the door. and combination-lock "My invention further consists really constitute but a single in combining a clock-lock lock, as aforesaid, the result with a combination or key-lock, being that, if violence be applied both constructed to be applied to such a lock through on a safe, vault, or other door, the dial spindle or otherwise, to operate in connection with the efficiency of the time-movement the bolt-work of such door, said will be destroyed. clock-lock being provided with a lock-bolt constructed with an opening or offset, which is automatically brought in and out of coincidence with the tongue of the door-bolt in such a manner that the door-bolt may be retained in an unlocked condition for shutting, and prevented from being withdrawn when locked until both locks have been unlocked, the prime object being that each lock shall have an independent action, so that the clock-lock will not release the bolt until a certain determinate hour, and when it does release its bolt the combination
or key-lock still remains locked and secures the door. "A represents the combination "Referring to the drawings, or key-lock, and B the the letter A designates a combination clock-lock. These locks are or key-lock, and B provided with bolts C D, of the time-lock. These locks any desired kind, against which are illustrated as being upon a strike the studs a a' of the tie-piece portion of a safe or vault-door, piece E. When the locks are with the bolt-work projected and locked, the bolts hold said studs locked, the lock-bolts or obstructions out and both locks have to be unlocked being in a locked position. to allow the door-bolt to The lock-bolts or obstructions retract. C D are, in the present example, shown as being constructed each with a notch or recess, so that, when said notches or recesses are brought in line with the tongue-pieces or studs a a', arranged upon the carrying-bar E of the bolt-work, they (the said tongue-pieces or studs) can, by a movement of the bolt-work, be made to enter said notches or recesses, and thus the bolt-work can be retracted and the safe or vault-door thrown open. When the bolt-work is projected or cast so as to lock the safe or vault-door, the lock-bolts or obstructions can he brought into a locked position, the lock-bolt or obstruction of the combination-lock being placed in a locked position by mechanically operating the dial-spindle, which controls the movements of the tumblers and
other portions of the lock, while the lock-bolt or obstruction of the time-lock will automatically bring itself into a locked position after the door is closed, whereby the door of the safe or vault will be locked and guarded by two locks, one of which is operated from the exterior mechanically, while the other operates on the interior automatically, there being no hole through the door whereby it might be operated upon by any mechanical means. "The locks A B are separate "The combination-lock and and independent of each other, the time-lock are separate from and complete in themselves, and each other in performing their may be located at any position office or function with respect to on the door. The combination the bolt-work on the safe or or key-lock will naturally be vault-door, and each of said located in line with the spindle locks should be complete in itself, that operates it; but the clock-lock and so constructed that lock may be placed anywhere they may be placed at any position where space is best found for on a safe or vault-door. it on the door, and the stud a' "The combination or key-lock of the door-bolt, which connects should be located in line with it, may be lengthened, bent, with the dial-spindle or key or otherwise arranged to rest which operates it, but the time-lock against the lock-bolt in whatever may be located anywhere ever position it may be, as on the safe or vault-door where shown in Fig. 1. sufficient space is present for it, and the tongue-pieces or studs on the carrying-bar of the bolt-work may be of any required length, bent or otherwise arranged so as to connect with or
rest against the lock-bolts or obstructions, when the latter is moved to the proper position for obstructing or dogging the bolt-work, and prevent its retraction or unlocking, thus retaining the door in a locked position until both locks have been unlocked. "In locking the safe or vault-door "When it is desired to lock door some device is necessary or fasten the bolt-work of the to allow the door-bolt to remain safe or vault-door by means back in the unlocked position of a combination-lock and a until the door is closed, without time-lock, some mechanical arrangement interfering with the clock-lock. or device should be employed to enable the lock-bolt or obstruction of the time-lock to be set or adjusted while the safe-door is open and the bolt-work in a retracted or unlocked position, so that the door can be closed to admit of the bolt-work being projected or cast. The lock-bolt or obstruction will, as hereinafter set forth, present its lock-bolt or obstruction automatically, thus securing the door in a locked position until the arrival of the time determined by the time mechanism or register, at which time the lock-bolt or obstruction will be automatically moved and brought into a position for admitting of the releasing and unlocking of the bolt-work, so that said door can be opened.
"To accomplish such mechanical arrangement or device in the time-lock, a lock-bolt or obstruction is employed in the time-lock itself, or by means of an adjustable tongue-piece or stud connected with the carrying-bar of the bolt-work — such, for instance, as those illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5 of the accompanying sheets of drawings. "The lock-bolt or obstruction D, illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, is one of the devices that should be employed to enable the time-lock to be set while the bolt-work remains in a retracted or unlocked position, so that the bolt-work will remain in such retracted position without interfering with the time-lock, the combination-lock, of course, during such interval, being in an unlocked position, and through such mediums the bolt-work when projected for closing the door will be held in a locked position by the automatic movement of the lock-bolt or obstruction of the time-lock, and by the lock-bolt of the combination-lock, which is brought into a locked position by the mechanical operation of the dial-spindle. "In Fig. 1 the bolt D of the "The lock-bolt or obstruction clock-lock is constructed in two of the time-lock is constructed
parts, D' D², turning independently in two parts, D' D² adapted to on the same bearings c. turn independently of the other The inner part, D², has the on the same bearing c. The socket d, into which the stud inner part, D², has a notch or of the door-bolt enters in drawing recess, d, into which the tongue-piece back. It is connected to or stud on the carrying-bar the outer part, D', by a coiled enters when the bolt-work spring, f, Fig. 3, resting in a is retracted, so as to open the cavity in the side of the outer safe or vault-door if the combination-lock part. The outer part is also be unlocked. The connected by a similar coiled said inner part D² is connected spring, g, with the fixed bearing, to the outer part D¹ by a c. Instead of the spring spring, f, resting in a cavity g it may have a counter-weight, or recess in the side of the g', Fig. 5. The spring g outer part. The outer part causes the outer part, D', to D¹ is also connected by a turn back or fall, so that the spring, g, with the bearing c. socket d of the inner part The spring g being connected comes in position to allow the with the outer part D¹, and stem a' of the door-bolt to with its bearing c, causes the enter therein. When this is outer part D¹, to be moved or done, the outer part is turned turned on its axis, so that the up to engage the dog, (presently notch, recess, or offset d of the to be described,) while inner part D² is brought into a the inner part remains stationary position to allow the tongue or on the stem of the door-bolt. stud a' of the carrying-bar to The door is then shut and the enter it, and thus the bolt-work door-bolt thrown out, and the can be retracted, and when so tension of the spring g causes retracted the outer part D¹ is the part D² to turn when turned or moved, and made to released, thereby locking the connect and engage with the door-bolt. The parts D¹ D² portion of a yoke, while the are provided with suitable inner part D² remains stationary, stops, by which the motion is being prevented from moving gaged to bring the socket of or turning on its axis by the the part D² in proper position tongue-piece or stud on the carrying-bar in its throw. resting in the notch
"The device above described or recess of the part D² of the forms a part of the clock-lock, bolt-lock or obstruction. being the bolt of the same. In Fig. 1 is shown another device for the same purpose, situated outside the lock, which is the subject-matter of a separate application. It consists of a socket or bearing, h, attached to the tie-piece E of the door-bolt and sliding on an independent stud, a', resting against the lock-bolt. A spring locking-pin, i, is used to connect the parts when the door-bolt is thrown forward to connect with the jamb. In this case the lock-bolt D may be made solid, and may be either of the turning or sliding kind. "The parts constituting the lock-bolt or obstruction, and forming a part of the time-lock, being thus constructed, arranged, and adjusted, the time mechanism having been previously wound, and the dials set for a certain predetermined time, the bolt-work is projected or cast, when the lock-bolt or obstruction of said time-lock will automatically be brought into a locked position, and the door of the safe or vault securely guarded by a combination-lock, if it be locked, and a time-lock, and the bolt-work be
prevented from being retracted, or the safe or vault-door opened, until both locks have been unlocked. "The parts D¹ D² composing the lock-bolt or obstruction are supplied with suitable stops, by which their motion or throw is limited so as to bring the notch recess, or offset of the part D² in proper position in its rotation to coincide with the tongue-piece or stud on the carrying-bar of the bolt-work. "In lieu of forming the lock-bolt or obstruction in two parts, as above described, it has been found eminently practical and successful to employ a lock-bolt or obstruction made in a single piece, or as an integral. Such a lock-bolt or obstruction is shown in Fig. 5 of the drawing, and, as it will be perceived, it is constructed with a notch, recess, or offset, to admit of a tongue-piece or stud entering it when the bolt-work is retracted for unlocking the safe or vault-door, and said lock-bolt or obstruction is likewise provided with an arm, g', having a pin or stud for connecting or engaging with a yoke in such a manner that when said arm and yoke are in connection the lock-bolt or obstruction will be
placed so as to prevent the retraction of the bolt-work, and when said arm and yoke are disconnected through the medium of revolving dials, to be hereinafter mentioned, the lock-bolt or obstruction will be automatically brought to a position for allowing the bolt-work to be retracted, and such automatic movement of the lock-bolt or obstruction is due to the action of the arm g' acting as a counterweight. "When a lock-bolt or obstruction of the character last described is employed, some provision must be made for adjusting and setting the time-lock or the lock that measures time, prior to closing the safe or vault-door, and this must be accomplished while the bolt-work is in a retracted position; therefore to enable such to be done, there is arranged on the carrying-bar of the bolt-work a socket or bearing, which is provided with a movable tongue-piece and a spring-bolt, constructed and arranged in such a manner that when the spring-bolt is moved out of contact with the socket or bearing of the movable tongue-piece or stud of the carrying-bar, it, together with the bolt-work, can be retracted as the
socket or bearing on said carrying-bar moves or slides along the tongue-piece or stud in a longitudinal direction, one end of it bearing upon the lock-bolt or obstruction of the time-lock, and in such condition the safe or vault-door can be closed, and when the bolt-work is projected or cast into the jamb of the door, the socket or bearing moves along the tongue-piece until the spring-bolt engages with it, when it — the socket or bearing — will be automatically locked in place, and the bolt-work, performing its office, will securely fasten the safe or vault-door, upon which the combination-lock is placed, together with the time-lock. "From the foregoing it will be seen that the lock-bolt or obstruction shown in several figures are each stationary except during the brief interval of time when locking or unlocking is being effected, and that each is adapted to be turned on its pivot or bearing for obstructing or dogging the bolt-work for preventing its retraction or for releasing the bolt-work at the time appointed, so that it can be retracted; and it should be noticed that the lock-bolt or obstruction of the time-lock is so
located in the time-lock that if pressure be exerted upon the lock-bolt or obstruction by force applied to the bolt-work, such pressure will not be transmitted to the delicate workmanship forming part of the time-lock, for the lock-bolt or obstruction, so to speak, is isolated from the time mechanism, in order to bring and retain the lock-bolt or obstruction in a position to have the same obstruct and prevent the retraction of the bolt-work, or to move it to release the bolt-work, whereby the same may be retracted. "G is a dog for holding the "There is arranged within lock-bolt D up in the locked position. the time-lock a yoke, G, which It turns on an axis, k, is capable of being oscillated and its point engages under a or turned on its axis or pivot, stop, l, preferably a roller, of said yoke being acted on by the bolt when the latter is raised. two rotating dials, H H, in It is held in engagement by a such a manner that said yoke light spring, j. The dog has two will be operated by either or branching arms, m, m, projecting both of said dials at the predetermined inward over the faces of time for which said the dial-wheels H H. The dial-wheels revolving dials have been set. have pins n n projecting "In the example shown in out from their faces, and when the time-lock in Fig. 1, the they or either of them strike yoke engages under a stop, l, the levers m m they release the preferably a roller, arranged dog from its engagement with on the lock-bolt or obstruction, the bolt and the latter turns and when the latter is brought back or falls, thereby unlocking into a position for obstructing the lock, as before described. the bolt-work, to prevent its retraction until the arrival of the
predetermined time, while in the example shown in Fig. 5 said yoke connects or engages with the bolt-lock or obstruction. "In both examples the yoke retains the lock-bolt or obstruction in a position for obstructing and preventing the retraction of the bolt-work until the arrival of the predetermined time for which the revolving dials carrying pins have been set. "The arms or members m m of the aforesaid yoke extend over a portion of the revolving dials, from which project pins, and when either of said pins comes in contact with the arms or members of said yoke, which will occur at the arrival of the time previously determined upon when setting the revolving dials, it (the said yoke) will be operated or turned on its axis or pivot, and release the lock-bolt or obstruction, and leave the same to be brought into a position to permit the bolt-work to be retracted, which is accomplished by turning the knob or handle connected with the carrying-bar, said knob or handle being on the outside of the safe or vault-door. "I prefer to use two independent "It is preferred to use two time-movements or independent time mechanisms,
clocks, each connected with each connected with and operating and operating one of the dial-wheels one of the revolving dials, H, so that if one movement so that if one of the time mechanisms should accidentally stop should accidentally the other would be sure to stop the other would be sure unlock the lock. to operate the yoke, and by its movement release the lock-bolt or obstruction, which would automatically assume such a position as to present an unobstructed pathway for the tongue-piece or stud to move in and thus the bolt-work could be released and be left free to be withdrawn or retracted. "The revolving dials are cogged — that is, provided with teeth, which engage with the arbor O of the mainspring-barrel, either directly or by means of the pinion p attached to said arbor, or through intermediate gearing — so that the setting of the time mechanism for operating the yoke at any given time will necessarily wind up the time mechanism, to the extent, at least, that it will unwind by the arrival of the predetermined time at which the lock-bolt or obstruction is to be released for enabling the bolt-work to be retracted. "The dial-wheels are indexed "The revolving dials are indexed or marked with a scale of hours or marked with a scale from 0 to 48, or any other from zero (0) upward to 48, or number corresponding with any other number corresponding
the longest interval the lock is with the longest interval to remain locked at one time the time-lock is to present its — say from Saturday night to lock-bolt or obstruction to obstruct Monday morning. This scale the bolt-work at one time is used in conjunction with a — say, from Saturday night to pointer, e, at the top of the Monday morning. This scale wheel. In setting the lock the is used in conjunction with a dial-wheels are moved backward pointer or index, e, arranged in from 0 to any number in the time-lock above the revolving the scale that will indicate the dials. number of hours the safe or "In setting the time-lock vault is to remain closed; and the revolving dials are turned the pins n n must be so located or moved backward from zero with reference to the scale as (0) to any number in the scale to strike the levers m m and that will indicate the number release the bolt when the 0 of hours the safe or vault-door mark comes forward to the is to remain closed or locked, pointer. The time-movements and the pins n of the revolving or mechanism may be of any dials must be so adjusted with ordinary construction to measure reference to the yoke as to time. come in contact with the arms or "Each of the dial-wheels H members m m of the yoke, so that H is cogged, and engages with either or both of the said arms or the arbor o of the mainspring-barrel members will act upon the yoke, either directly by means causing it to move so as to release of the pinion p attached to said the lock-bolt or obstruction arbor or through intermediate of the time-lock when the gearing. The arbor o is the zero (0) mark arrives at the stem by which the clock is index or pointer. wound. "The winding up of the time "When the clock is finished, mechanism and the setting of it is fully wound up before the the revolving dials is performed dial-wheel is adjusted in place. simultaneously by imparting The motion is then imparted to proper motion to the arbor o of the dial-wheel, which runs forward the mainspring-barrel. to unlock the lock, and in "The revolving dials are provided moving the dial-wheel back to with a pin, r, as shown
reset the lock the clock is rewound. in Fig. 4, the same serving as a stop. "The dial-wheel is turned "On the pallet s, which engages back to reset the lock by a key with the escape-wheel t, applied at the winding arbor o. is a pin, u, which projects out through a slot, v, of the stationary time-mechanism frame, the whole arranged in such a manner that as soon as the revolving dial has acted upon the yoke for causing it to release the lock-bolt or obstruction, the pin r, of the said revolving dial will strike the pin u of the pallet, and lock the latter in the escape-wheel, thereby stopping the time mechanism, so that there will be no loss of power, as it is intended that the time-lock should be wound up when first finished, prior to adjusting in place the revolving dials; and, further by stopping the time mechanism, as above described, the revolving dials cannot get out of position with respect to the index or point. "By the means above described "By my invention the time-lock I obviate a great objection cannot be reset without to common clock-locks, winding, for the pins of the which run on until they run revolving dials, resting in contact down, thus subjecting the lock with the arms or members to the danger of being locked in of the yoke, prevent it from by neglect of winding. By being brought into action with this means the lock cannot be the lock-bolt or obstruction until reset without winding, for the the revolving dials have been pins n n, resting in contact moved back the number of hours
with the levers m m, prevent for which it is designed to obstruct the dog G from being engaged the bolt-work. Thus the with the bolt until the dial-wheels resetting of the time-lock requires have been moved back, rewinding of the time as described. The relocking mechanism as a necessity, and of the lock therefore requires hence no danger of its being rewinding of the clock as a unlocked accidentally during necessity. the period of hours for which "On the back of the dial-wheel it is set. H is a pin, r, Fig. 4, "The dial-wheel is turned forming a stop. On the pallet back to set the time-lock by a s, which engages with the key applied at the winding-arbor scape-wheel t, is a pin, u, which o. projects out through a slot, "By the means above described v, of the stationary clock-frame. I obviate a great objection As soon as the dial-wheel has to common clock-locks, acted upon the lever m to unlock which run on until they run the lock the pin r of the down, thus subjecting the lock dial-wheel strikes the pin u of to the danger of a `lock-out,' the pallet and locks the latter caused by neglect of winding. in the scape-wheel, thereby "By this means the time-lock stopping the clock. There is, cannot be set without therefore, no loss of motion, nor winding, for the pins n n, resting can the dial-wheel get out of in contact with the arms position with respect to the of the yoke, it (the yoke) cannot pointer. be engaged with the lock-bolt or obstruction until the dial-wheels have been moved back to set the lock, as before described. "By combining an independent "By combining an independent clock-lock and combination time-lock of the character or key-lock with the described and a combination or door-bolt, as described, I produce key-lock, I produce an effect an effect which cannot or result which cannot be produced be produced by a clock-lock by a time-lock alone, alone or by two or more combination-locks or by two or more combination-locks together. The together.
clock-lock serves as a safeguard "The time-lock serves as a by night and the combination-lock safeguard by night, in connection by day. If the holder of the with the combination-lock, combination is forced to open for holding the bolt-work in a the combination-lock at night, locked condition; but when the the clock-lock remains intact, time-lock releases the bolt-work and cannot be opened by the at the appointed hour, the bolt-work burglars or the holder of the will remain locked, and combination. On the other the safe or vault-door closed, hand, when the clock-lock releases until the combination-lock is its bolt in the morning, unlocked by the holder of the the combination-lock still remains combination on which said lock locked, and burglars cannot is set, when the bolt-work can make an entrance to the be retracted and the door opened, safe. Such results cannot be thus leaving the time-lock free accomplished by a clock-lock from performing any locking alone, because when it releases action, which leaves the combination-lock its bolt the safe is absolutely free for use during unlocked; nor by two or more the day for locking or unlocking combination-locks together, the safe or vault-door — an important because the holders of the desideratum present in combination may be taken to my invention. the bank and forced to open "If the time-lock present on the lock. Neither can tampering the safe or vault-door is set for with the combination-lock holding the bolt-work from the affect the clock-lock. time the bank closes in the afternoon to release the bolt-work at a certain hour the next morning, it will admirably and with certainty perform its office, leaving the combination-lock to be opened before the bolt-work can be retracted; and should the officer of the bank holding the combination be seized during the night, carried to the bank, and forced to open the combination-lock,
the time-lock will remain intact, and cannot be opened by the burglars or the officer in charge of the combination. Such results cannot be accomplished by a time-lock alone, because when it releases its bolt-work the safe or vault-door is absolutely unlocked, and no lock present for use during the day; nor by two or more combination-locks together, because the holders of the combinations may be taken to the bank and forced to open the locks. Neither can tampering with the combination-lock affect the time-lock. "The combination-lock may "The combination-lock may be punched from place, but the be punched from its position clock-lock, being separate and by burglars; but then the time-lock independent from it, and having being separate and independent no opening through the from it, cannot be door, cannot be affected. It is affected or disturbed, because therefore superior to a lock there is no opening through the which has the time-movement door by which it can be reached. combined directly with the It is therefore superior to a combination-lock, both forming lock which has the time-movement one lock, in which case combined directly with any violence to the lock-work the combination-lock, both disarranges the clock. Another forming one lock, in which advantage of this invention case any violence to the lock-work is the capability of the disarranges the time-movement. separate locks of being applied on different parts of the door "Another advantage of my indifferently. The bolt-work invention is the capability of on different doors is frequently the separate locks being applied
such that the two locks cannot on different parts of the not be applied together. The safe or vault-door, with respect clock-lock in such case may be to the bolt-work, indifferently. attached at the most convenient "The bolt-work on different location, as before described. safe or vault-doors is frequently It can also be applied with such that the time-lock and the facility on old safes having the combination or key-lock cannot combination or key-lock already be applied together; but in ready on, thus securing the such case the time-lock may be advantage of a clock-lock and attached at the most convenient combination-lock without the location, as no opening through necessity of removing the old the door is requisite. lock and substituting a new "The time-lock can be applied one having a time-movement with ease and facility to combined directly with the lock. the doors of old safes or vaults having the combination or key-lock already thereon, thus securing the advantage of a time-lock and a combination or key-lock without the necessity of removing the old lock. "I do not claim, broadly, "I do not claim, broadly, a clock-lock; nor do I claim a time-lock of any peculiar two or more combination-locks construction; nor do I claim combined with the door-bolt; two or more combination-locks but combined with the bolt-work "I claim — of a safe or vault-door, as such are old and well known. "What I claim, and desire to secure by letters-patent, is — "1. The combination with "1. The combination, with a door-bolt, E, of a clock-lock, the bolt-work of a safe or vault-door B, and a combination or key-lock, of a time-lock and a combination A, applied independently or key-lock, both applied on a safe, vault, or other door, independently on a safe, so as to rest against or connect vault, or other door, so as to with said door-bolt, and rest against or connect with
provided with a device whereby the bolt-work on said door, and the door-bolt may be retained provided with a device whereby in the unlocked position the bolt-work may be retained for shutting the door, the in the unlocked position whole arranged so that the for shutting the door, and door-bolt cannot be withdrawn, be automatically locked by the when locked, until both locks time-lock and mechanically by have been unlocked. the combination or key-lock when the bolt-work is cast, the whole so arranged that the
bolt-work cannot be withdrawn when locked till both locks have been unlocked. "2. The combination of a "2. The combination of a clock-lock and a combination or time-lock and a combination key-lock, both constructed to or key-lock, both constructed be applied on a safe, vault, or to be applied on a safe vault, other door, so as to rest against or other door, so as to rest the door-bolt, and provided against the bolt-work and provided with a lock-bolt having an with a lock-bolt or obstruction opening or an offset, which is having an opening automatically brought in and or offset, which is automatically
out of coincidence with the brought into and out of tongue of the door-bolt, whereby coincidence with the tongue by the door-bolt may be retained of the bolt-work, whereby the in the unlocked position bolt-work may be retained in for shutting the door and the unlocked position for shutting prevented from being withdrawn, the door, and prevented when locked, until both from being retracted when locks have been unlocked." locked, until both locks have been unlocked. "3. The combination, with the bolt-work of a safe or vault-door, of a combination or key-lock controllable mechanically from the exterior of said door, with a time-lock having a lock-bolt or obstruction for locking and unlocking controllable from the interior of the door, both of said locks being arranged so as to rest against or connect with the bolt-work, the time-locks being automatically unlocked by the operation of the time-movement, both of said locks being independent of each other, and arranged to control the locking and unlocking of the bolt-work, so that said safe or vault-door cannot be opened when locked until both of said locks have been unlocked or have released their dogging action, to enable the door to be opened, substantially as described."
Claim 3 of reissue No. 7947 was passed upon by Judge Shipman in the Circuit Court for the District of Connecticut, in March, 1881, in the suits of Yale Lock Manufacturing Company
The only remark made by Judge Lowell, in his opinion in the present case, as to the validity of reissue No. 7947, as respects claim 3, is, that the patent "was reissued so soon after its granting that it is not obnoxious to the objection of undue delay." The application for the reissue was filed 13 days after the original patent was issued, and the reissue was granted 36 days after the application for it was filed. Judge Lowell held claim 3 to be invalid on the ground that, if it was a claim irrespective of any particular means for carrying it out it was void as a patent for a principle, independently of the state of the art; and that, in view of the state of the art, it was void. He was of opinion, that there was no patentable novelty in putting a time-lock, which was old, in place of one of two combination locks, where two combination locks had been before used to dog one combined bolt-work; that it was not patentable to substitute a well-known multiple bolt-work for two such bolt-works, where a time-lock and a combination lock had been before combined in the use of two multiple bolt-works; and that there was no patentable novelty in combining two locks with a single door.
A history of the proceedings in the Patent Office in regard to patent No. 195,539 and reissue No. 7947, shows that claim 3 of that reissue must be held to be invalid.
In the specification he then filed he said: "This improvement belongs to that class in which two locks are applied upon a safe or vault-door for the purpose of preventing the withdrawal of the safe-bolt till both locks have been unlocked... . I employ one ordinary combination or key-lock and one time-movement or clock-lock, attached independently to the door, and employ in combination therewith a safe-bolt that bears against or connects with both of said locks in such a manner that though the ordinary lock may be picked or opened, yet the clock-lock cannot be reached, and the safe-bolt therefore cannot be released till the clock has performed its office and unlocked its lock at the predetermined hour... . But it is by no means essential to this invention that the circular form of lock-bolt should be used, as the ordinary style of sliding-bolt, or other forms of shifting bearings, could be employed, if desired... . Clock-locks have before been used both separately and in connection with combination locks. Where used alone they are insecure, for the reason that burglars, ascertaining the hour upon which the lock is set, may, by confining or disabling the officers of the bank having control of the same, open the safe when the hour arrives. In my improvement such result cannot occur, because the combination lock still locks the safe. Where clock-locks have been combined with ordinary locks heretofore, so far as I am aware, the said locks have been connected by a lever or other connection, so that their actions are dependent on each other. In such case, if the combination or key-lock is injured by a lock-pick, by violence or otherwise, the clock-lock is liable to
This application was rejected by the examiner, but, on appeal, his decision was overruled by the examiners-in-chief, February 17, 1875. The examiner then ascertained that the case had been argued before the examiners-in-chief on an invention which had not been before the examiner, and that another model was used before the examiners-in-chief in place of the one properly in the case. The new feature of invention was a device by which the time-lock could be properly set and the door then be closed; but that device, which made the invention an operative one, was not shown in the drawing, the specification or the model, which had been before the examiner. In a communication made to Sargent by the examiner at the time, February 20, 1875, he said: "As far as the Office knows by the record of the case, this new invention may not have been contemporaneous with the first one. The examiner would suggest that a new case be at once filed embodying this invention, which makes the devices operative, and against the patentability of which no question will be raised. The claim, however, must be not broadly for A combined with C, which is not conceded to be entirely inoperative, but A and B combined either with C or some mechanical equivalent thereof, which alone makes A and B operative." He also said: "It is suggested to applicant that he file a new case introducing the new combining device which allows the door to be shut after the time-lock is set, and thus takes it out from the new reference cited, and the examiner will, in all proper ways, hasten the case forward upon a legitimate claim for A and B with suitable combining device to allow the door to be closed after the time-lock is set, inasmuch as no obstacle exists, as the examiner is at present advised."
In accordance with this suggestion, Sargent, on the 10th of March, 1875, filed a new application, which resulted in the granting of patent No. 195,539. The specification of this application said: "In locking the safe or vault-door, some device is necessary to allow the door-bolt to remain back in the unlocked position until the door is closed, without interfering
The specification of this application also said: "In Fig. 1 is shown another device for the same purpose, situated outside the lock, which is the subject matter of another application. It consists of a socket or bearing, h, attached to the tie-piece, E, of the door-bolt, and sliding on an independent stud, a', resting against the lock-bolt. A spring locking-pin, i, is used to connect the parts, when the door-bolt is thrown forward to connect with the jamb. In this case, the lock-bolt, D, may be made solid, and may be either of the turning or sliding kind. [Other devices might be used to allow the door to shut. I do not wish to confine myself to any particular form of the device.]" The sentences in brackets were afterwards erased.
Sargent thus limited himself to combinations wherein one or the other of the peculiar devices invented by him should be an essential element, which is further evidenced by the fact that, in claim 1, as accepted by him, the combination of the clock-lock and combination lock, as applied to the door-bolt, was to be provided with a device whereby the door-bolt might be retained in the unlocked position for shutting the door; and in claim 2, the same combination was to be provided with a lock-bolt having an opening or an offset which was automatically brought in and out of coincidence with the tongue of the door-bolt, whereby the latter might be retained in the unlocked position for shutting the door.
On the 16th of March, 1875, the examiner rejected claim 1, saying that it was to be found substantially in the patent granted to Cornell, August 10, 1858, for "safe bolt-work," and referring also to three prior patents for time-locks, and adding, that "merely to substitute either one of the above time-locks for one of the locks shown in Cornell's patent, is not regarded as a patentable difference." To this Sargent's attorney replied, on the 17th of March, 1875: "The combination is such as to require something else to be done other than to simply substitute for one of the key-locks shown in Cornell's patent one of the time-locks cited by the examiner"
On the 19th of March, 1875, Sargent's attorney struck out the parts in brackets, before quoted, and also struck out claim 1 and substituted as claim 1 what is claim 2 in the original patent as granted. On March 20, 1875, the attorney reinstated claim 1, and added as claim 2 what is claim 2 in the original patent.
On the 22d of March, 1875, the examiner rejected both of the claims, on the references before made, and referred also to the English patent to W. Rutherford, of April 14, 1831. He added, that "a rotating lock-bolt having an opening or an offset is not new," and referred especially to two prior patents, and said: "The second claim may possibly be allowed if amended by inserting the words `constructed in two parts and' after `lock-bolt.'"
An appeal was taken from this decision, and on the 27th of March, 1875, the board of examiners-in-chief reversed the decision of the examiner, doing so on the ground that the combination embracing Sargent's peculiar devices for retaining the door-bolt in an unlocked position, for shutting the door, were new and patentable. Before Sargent's patent could issue, he was put into interference with Stockwell, Burge and Little, and also with Pillard and Lillie. It is evident, from decisions made by the examiner of interferences, and by the Commissioner of Patents, in questions arising in some of these interferences, that Sargent was regarded as making no claim to a broad combination between the bolt-work of a door, and a time-lock, and an independent non-time-lock, which is the subject matter of claim 3 of reissue No. 7947.
The examiner, the examiners-in-chief and the Commissioner of Patents decided priority of invention in favor of Sargent, as to the combination, by Sargent, of the bolt-work, with a time-lock, and a non-time-lock, and his device for retaining the door-bolt in its retracted position, for shutting the door without interfering with the lock mechanism. The patent No. 195,539 was then issued, on September 25, 1877, with the
The lock of the defendants did not infringe either of the two claims of the original patent, for it did not contain what is called in claim 1 "a device whereby the door-bolt may be retained in the unlocked position for shutting the door," after the time-lock is set; nor did it contain what is called in claim 2 "a lock-bolt having an opening or an offset which is automatically brought in and out of coincidence with the tongue of the door-bolt." This is apparent from the fact that it is not contended that the defendants' lock infringes either claim 1 or claim 2 of reissue No. 7947, which two claims are substantially identical with claims 1 and 2 of the original patent.
On the 8th of October, 1877, Sargent filed an application for a reissue of patent No. 195,539. He inserted in his specification what is claim 3 of the reissue as granted. That claim is as broad as the claim made in his application of May 9, 1874, which, as before shown, he abandoned. The examiner rejected this claim twice, and after the second rejection, and on the 26th of October, 1877, Sargent appealed to the examiners-in-chief. In the statement of appeal his attorney said: "All time-locks used with bolt-work must have some mechanical arrangement to enable the bolt-work to be retracted for closing the door. Such is present in many old patents, and has never been claimed by my client; but what is claimed by him is for the union of such an old, well-known time-lock with a combination lock and bolt-work all arranged on the same door." This shows the breadth of the claim, as compared with claims 1 and 2 of the original patent.
The examiner, in his answer to the reasons of appeal, said: "Leaving out the descriptive and recitative parts of the claim as well as all superfluous and misleading matter, we have as the claim, the following elements and arrangements, viz.: A combination or key-lock, and a time-lock, combined with the bolt-work of a safe-door, both used independently and resting against or connecting with the bolt-work. The only elements are the two locks and the bolt-work, no other element being hinted at even, and the arrangement of
It is very clear, from a comparison of the specification of the original patent No. 195,539 with that of reissue No. 7947, that the specification of the original was not defective or insufficient, and that the patent was not inoperative. Not only is there no
The effect of such an abandonment of a claim upon the validity of a reissue has been often adjudged by this court. Leggett v. Avery, 101 U.S. 256, 259; Mahn v. Harwood, 112 U.S. 354, 359; Cartridge Co. v. Cartridge Co., 112 U.S. 624, 644; Shepard v. Carrigan, 116 U.S. 593, 597, 598; Roemer v. Peddie, 132 U.S. 313, 317.
Nor does the fact that reissue No. 7947 was applied for only thirteen days after the grant of the original patent establish its validity. In Coon v. Wilson, 113 U.S. 268, 277, enlarged claims in a reissued patent were declared invalid, although the reissue was applied for a little over three months after the original was granted, on the ground that a clear mistake, inadvertently committed, in the wording of a claim, was necessary, without reference to the length of time. See also Ives v. Sargent, 119 U.S. 652, 663; Parker & Whipple Co. v. Yale Clock Co., 123 U.S. 87, 103.
These views dispose of claim 3 of reissue No. 7947, independently of the ground on which the Circuit Court held it to be invalid and all other considerations urged by the defendants.
We come now to consider claims 1 and 7 of reissue No. 8550
The specification, drawings and claims of Little's original patent, No. 146,832, were as follows:
"Be it known that I, Samuel A. Little, of Buckland, in the county of Franklin and State of Massachusetts, have made certain new and useful improvements in clock-locks, whereof the following is a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a front view of my improved clock-lock attached to the inside of a safe, adjacent to the hinged part of the safe-door. Fig. 2 shows a seventh-day wheel, marked A in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 shows a cam-wheel, marked B in Fig. 1. Fig. 4 shows a graduated cam-wheel, marked C in Fig. 1. Fig. 5 represents the inside of a safe with the door-bolts locked forward by the lever-dog, which is elevated by the clock-lock. Fig. 6 represents a horizontal section of my clock-lock detached from the clocks, the dog-lever excepted, taken through the line x x of Fig. 1. Fig. 7 represents a vertical section of the same, (similarly detached, except that the clock-wheels to which the same is immediately attached are shown,) taken through the line y y of Fig. 1. In the various figures, similar letters indicate similar parts.
"D and E are two clock-movements fastened to the inside, F, of a safe, adjacent to the hinged part of a safe-door, G. Said clock-movements, through the wheels and ratchets K and L, (shown by the dotted lines, Fig. 1,) which are rotated once in twelve hours by the clock, propel the wheels H and I in the same time in the direction of the arrows thereon. The wheels H and I are both geared to the common wheel M, having twice as many teeth as either H or I, and propel the same in the direction of the arrow thereon, so that, while H and I are rotated once in twelve hours, M is rotated once a day. It will therefore be seen that both clocks work together in turning the wheel M, and thereby operating the lock, while, if either clock stops, the wheel H or I of the other will alone continue to rotate the wheel M and operate the lock, as the ratchet allows free motion to the wheel I or H of the other clock, although said clock may be stopped. Forming part of the
seventh revolution thereof, it is brought under the roller S, and holds up the lever R while the depression h passes under it, so that every seventh day the same prevents the safe from being unlocked.
"From the description aforesaid, the mode of operation will be obvious. The clocks are set to true time by bringing the hour-mark on the dial C under the roller S, which is readily done by turning the dial, as the wheels A, B, C, and M are freely turned in the direction of the arrow on C, inasmuch as the ratchets behind H and I do not interfere with motion in that direction, but take up, and, through the clock's force, proceed with, whatever advance of said wheels may be made. The lock is then set to lock up at any given hour, by loosening the thumb-screw Q and turning the inclined plane k of the wheel B to the mark of the required hour, and then fastening the wheels B and C together by setting the thumb-screw Q.
"If it is desired to have the lock open any amount of time earlier than the set time, (nine o'clock,) the wheel C must be turned, as described, until the time indicated under the roller shall be that amount fast of true time, the closing-mark being altered, if desired, to suit the case. If it is desired to open later, the clocks must be stopped until they are slow of time as much as it is desired the lock shall open later than the set time, correcting the closing-mark, if desired.
"If the wheels A, B, C, and M are turned, as described, until the cam part n of the wheel A shall be in position to come under the roller S, and keep the lock from opening on Sunday, it will continue to do so on Sunday each week if the clocks run on unchanged. In case that it shall be desired
"The lock is affixed to the side F of the safe, as described, to avoid derangement or stoppage of the clocks by concussion on the door.
"It is evident that the dog-lever V and the lever R may be the same piece. The object in making the same in two parts is to save the weight of the part V, which depends upon the pivot l, from adding to the labor of the clocks.
"What I claim as my invention, and for which I pray letters-patent, is —
"1. The combination, with one or more clock-movements, of one or more wheels, H I, one or more ratchets, K L, and a common wheel, M, arranged as described, for the purposes set forth.
"2. The wheels B and C, with the depressions d and f and the projections e and g, located relatively to each other as described, to increase and diminish the surface of a common cam, i, or depression h, by rotation on each other, for the purposes described.
"3. The wheel A with a cam, n, adjusted as described, to prevent the falling of the lever R and dog V, either periodically or at required times, as described."
The specification, claims, and drawings of reissue No. 8550 are as follows:
"Be it known that I, Samuel A. Little, of Shelburne, in the county of Franklin and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful improvements in chronometric locks; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, that will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.
"The object of my invention is to construct a time-lock which shall dog and release the multiple bolt-work of a safe or vault at certain predetermined times, both the dogging and
"I provide adjustable devices, so that the periods when the lock shall be locked and unlocked may be varied at will; and I also provide a device whereby, at certain intervals — say on every seventh day — the lock will remain locked during the time when ordinarily it would be unlocked.
"It will thus be seen that I have constructed a lock which will, of itself, dog and release bolt-work at a regular hour each day, except on certain predetermined days — Sundays, for example — when it will remain in the locked position all day. My lock, when once adjusted, is therefore absolutely automatic, requiring no attention except winding, and it is, so far as I am aware, the first time-lock which locks at a time determined by the time mechanism, while at the same time the hours for locking and unlocking can be changed without altering the construction of the lock.
"To diminish the chances of accident from the stoppage of the time mechanism, I provide two independent movements, both of which assist in rotating the dial to actuate the lock; but, should one stop, the other will continue to rotate the dial.
"The particular construction of my lock is, that the two time-movements rotate a graduated dial so arranged that its motion oscillates, at certain regular determinable intervals, a pivoted bent lever, which in turn, in one instance, for automatic locking, lifts the free part of, and thus oscillates on its stationary pivot, a metallic dog or obstruction, so as to cause it to rest in the way, and prevent the retraction of the sliding bolt-work; and in the other instance, for automatic unlocking, it withdraws its support from under and permits the dog to oscillate by gravity, so as to clear the way for the retraction of the bolt-work.
"The adjustability of my lock for locking and unlocking I obtain by means of my dial, which is so arranged that what I may call its `bolt or dog-actuating points' can readily be
"I cause the lock to remain locked on Sundays or other desired days, by means of a supplemental cam, which temporarily assumes one of the functions of my dial, and by which I can at any desired time cause the lock to remain locked during a greater period than twenty-four hours.
"Referring now to the drawings in aid of a description of my lock in detail, figure 1 is a front view of my improved time-lock attached to the inside of a safe, adjacent to the hinge part of the safe-door; Fig. 2, a view of the same, partly in elevation and partly in section, on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3, a horizontal transverse section thereof on the line 3 3 of Fig. 1, with the upper time-movements removed, showing a plan of the locking mechanism proper; Fig. 4, a horizontal transverse section through the centre of the locking dials; Fig. 5, a perspective view of the interior of a safe, showing the door-bolts locked forward by the lever-dog; Fig. 6, a perspective view of the graduated dial (marked C in Fig. 1); Fig. 7, a similar view of wheel B in Fig. 1; Fig. 8, a similar view of a seventh-day wheel (marked A in Fig. 1).
"D and E designate two time-movements fastened to the inside, F, of a safe, adjacent to the hinged part of the safe-door G. These time-movements, through the wheels and ratchets K and L, propel the wheels H and I in the direction of the arrows thereon. These wheels H and I rotate once in twelve hours, and are both geared to the common wheel M, which has twice as many teeth as either of them, and they propel it in the direction of the arrow thereon, so that while wheels H and I are rotated once in twelve hours, wheel M is rotated only once a day.
"It will be seen that both time-movements work together
"The toothed wheel N, forming part of the wheel M, is geared into and drives the toothed wheel O. The toothed wheel P, forming part of the wheel O, is geared into and drives the seventh-day wheel A, which turns loosely on the hub a of the wheel M. This wheel A has twice as many teeth as wheel P, and wheel O has three and a half times as many teeth as wheel N. Therefore, while wheel M revolves once in a day, it only causes wheel A to revolve once in seven days. The wheel C, which is graduated for the hours of the day, is fastened rigidly upon the hub a by means of the projection b and rotates with it. Loose on the same hub is the wheel B, which may be fastened by friction to the wheel C in different positions by the thumb-screw Q, that is attached to, or forms part of, the wheel B, and passes through the slot c of the wheel C.
"p p p p p designate pivots, on which the several wheels revolve. The wheel B is cut away on its periphery, leaving the depression d and the cam projection e, and the periphery of the wheel C is similarly cut away, leaving the depression f and the cam projection g, of the same form and size as the depression and projection of the wheel B. When these two wheels are fastened together by the thumb-screw Q side by side, they form one wheel or dial, having a depression h, which may be enlarged or diminished by rotating the wheel B by means of the thumb-screw, and then setting it, and also having a cam or projection, i, which may be enlarged or diminished in the same manner. Pivoted near its middle to the lock-case is the bent lever R, one arm of which carries the friction-roller S, and is lifted by the cam i, revolving under the roller at the cam's inclined plane k, and at the same time the other arm, T, of said lever lifts the dog V, pivoted at l, up behind the door-bolts W W W W into the position shown in Fig. 5, thereby locking the bolts forward behind the jamb of
"It will be noted that the dog always tends to turn on its pivot automatically by gravity, so as to present a free space for the retraction of the bolt-work, and it is held up only for predetermined periods, to be measured by the time mechanism, by the bent lever.
"The seventh-day wheel A has on its periphery a cam projection, n, which rotates once while the depression h rotates seven times, as described, and it is so arranged relatively to the depression h, that on every seventh revolution thereof it is brought under the roller S and holds up the lever R, while the depression h passes under it, so that every seventh day this projection n prevents the safe from being unlocked.
"From the foregoing description the mode of operation will be obvious.
"The time-movements should be set to correct time by bringing the hour-mark on the dial C under the roller S, which is readily done by turning the dial, as the wheels A, B, C, and M turn freely in the direction of the arrow on wheel C, because the ratchets behind wheels H and I do not interfere with motion in that direction, but take up, and, through the force of the time-movements, proceed with, whatever advance of said wheels may be made. The lock should then be set to lock up at any given hour by loosening the thumb-screw Q, and turning the inclined plane k of the wheel B to the mark of the required hour, and then fastening the wheels B and C together by setting the thumb-screw Q. The dial will then indicate the time of locking and unlocking, and the operation of the time-movements will cause the oscillation of the dog into position to obstruct the retraction of the bolt-work in a little time, or at whatever time may have been decided upon, and it will be held there until the time arrives for unlocking, when the continued operation of the time-movements will withdraw its support, and it will fall out of the way.
"If the wheels A, B, C, and M, are turned, as described, until the cam part n of the wheel A shall be in a position to come under the roller S and keep the lock from opening on Sunday, it will continue to do so on Sunday each week, if the time-movements run on unchanged. Thus, the necessity for setting the mechanism on every Saturday, so that it shall keep the safe locked over Sunday, is obviated, which is a great convenience to bankers, and is, furthermore, a security against neglect to set the mechanism weekly, which might sometimes occur. In case it shall be desired that the lock shall not open for a holiday or other day, the said wheels may be rotated until the cam projection n is in position to come under the roller S and hold up the lever R on such day.
"The lock is affixed to the side F of the safe, as described, to avoid derangement or stoppage of the time-movements by concussion on the door; but it is obvious that it may be affixed to the door without modifying its construction, if desired, that being merely a change of location.
"It is evident that the dog V and the lever R may be one and the same piece. The object of making them in two parts is to save the weight of the part V, which depends upon the pivot l, from adding to the labor of the time movements, and also to make the dog or obstruction entirely distinct from the time mechanism.
"I am aware of the patent granted to Williams and Cummings, No. 17,245, and dated May 5, 1857, and do not claim anything shown therein, but intend to limit my claims to comprehend only the improvements I have made over the peculiar combinations shown in that patent, whereby I reduce the number, modify the construction, change the relative
"What I claim as my invention is —
"1. The combination of independent multiple bolt-work with the time mechanism and locking or dogging mechanism of a time-lock, automatically both dogging and releasing the bolt-work at predetermined times, substantially as described.
"2. The combination, in a time-lock, of a continuously revolving adjustable device for determining the time of operation of the unlocking mechanism, a pivoted arm or lever actuated by said device, and a dog or obstruction movable directly by said pivotal arm at regularly-recurring periods, to permit the retraction of the bolt-work, substantially as described.
"3. In a time-lock, the combination of time mechanism, a revolving dial actuated thereby, a dog and suitable connecting mechanism, whereby the continuous revolution of the dial causes the dog to move into the locked and unlocked positions alternately, substantially as described.
"4. In a time-lock, the combination of a continuously-rotating dial and mechanism which causes the lock to lock and unlock automatically, substantially as described.
"5. In a time-lock, a continuously-rotating dial provided with an adjustable device for automatically determining the time of locking, substantially as described.
"6. In a time-lock, the combination, substantially as above set forth, of the time-movements and an adjustable device for automatically determining the time of locking.
"7. In a time-lock, the combination, substantially as above set forth, of the time-movements and two adjustable devices, one for determining the time of locking, and the other of unlocking.
"8. In a time-lock, the combination with the time mechanism and the locking or dogging mechanism, of an adjustable device which, through the continuous operation of the time mechanism, will periodically, or at required times, cause the lock to remain locked during a greater period than twenty-four hours, substantially as described.
"9. In a continuously-running automatic time-lock, the
"10. The combination, substantially as above set forth, of the adjustable mechanism for continuously locking and unlocking daily the time-movements, and a device for preventing unlocking during a greater period than twenty-four hours.
"11. In a time-lock provided with two independent time-movements and an interlocking device common to both, the combination, with each of said movements, of a ratchet and pawl interposed between the last or driving arbor of each movement and the said common unlocking device, whereby the said device may be driven by either or both of the movements, and the stoppage of one movement will not necessarily cause the stoppage of the other, substantially as described.
"12. The combination, with the time-movements, of the wheels H and I, the ratchets K L, and the common wheel M, arranged substantially as described, for the purpose set forth.
"13. In combination with the dial, the seventh-day cam-wheel A, adjustable, as described, to prevent the falling of the bent lever R and dog V, either periodically or at required times, as described.
"14. The combination, in a time-lock, of time mechanism, a revolving graduated dial actuated thereby, a bent lever oscillated by the revolution of the dial on an immovable pivot, and a dog or obstruction, also oscillated on an immovable pivot, the lever and dog being so arranged that when one arm of the lever is pushed aside at a predetermined time by the revolution of the dial, the other arm withdraws its support from under and permits the dog to turn by gravity, thereby leaving a free space for the retraction of the bolt-work, substantially as described.
"15. The combination of multiple sliding bolt-work, a dog or obstruction oscillated on an immovable pivot, and tending, by gravity, to turn so as not to dog the bolt-work, a bent lever, oscillated also on an immovable pivot, for holding the
"16. The combination, substantially as before set forth, by means of suitable connecting mechanism, of the following elements, adapted, as combined, so to secure the door of a safe or vault, and to automatically release the same at a predetermined time, viz.: first, the multiple sliding bolt-work; second, the oscillating stop or dog, adapted to prevent the retraction of the bolt-work, and to be turned on its pivot to release the bolt-work at a time determined by the clock-work; third, the vibrating lever for holding the stop or dog in position to prevent the retraction of the bolt-work; and, fourth, the clock-work for determining the time when said lever shall be moved to permit the stop or dog to release the bolt-work.
"17. In a chronometric locking mechanism, the combination, substantially as before set forth, of the following elements, adapted as combined, to guard or dog the bolt-work of a safe or vault-door, and to automatically release the same at a predetermined time, viz.: first, the oscillating stop or dog, adapted to prevent the retraction of the bolt-work, and to be turned on its pivot to release the bolt-work at a time determined by the clock-work; second, the vibrating lever for holding the dog in position to prevent the retraction of the bolt-work; third, the clock-work for determining the time when said lever shall be moved to permit the dog to fall to release the bolt-work; and, fourth, the graduated wheel or dial, rotated by the clock-work, and adapted to operate said lever, and to be set for varying and controlling the time when said lever shall be moved to permit the dog to release the bolt-work."
Only claims 1 and 7 of the reissue are alleged to have been infringed. They take the place of claim 2 of the original patent. They were before Judge Shipman in the cases in 19 Blatchford and 6 Fed. Rep. above referred to, and he held that they covered new inventions and patentable improvements. Judge Lowell, in his opinion in the present case,
In September, 1887, in Yale Lock Mfg. Co. v. New Haven Savings Bank, 32 Fed. Rep. 167, in the Circuit Court for the District of Connecticut, Judge Shipman had before him the question of a rehearing as to the validity of claims 1 and 7, and especially the question whether claim 7 was an enlargement of claim 2 of the original patent. He held that claim 7 "should be limited to the invention which was described and claimed in the original patent, which invention was not confined to a `common cam,' or to a device which was connected with the compound wheel in the same way in which the cam was connected, but was broad enough to include equivalent means of connection with the dog." He held also that the owners of the patent had not abandoned, by proceedings in the Patent Office in respect to the two prior reissues of it, their right to claim, in reissue No. 8550, a double or compound disc, and to obtain a valid patent therefor.
Claims 1 and 7 were sustained also by Judge Sage, in the Circuit Court for the Western Division of the Southern District of Ohio, in May, 1889, in the case of Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. v. Consolidated Time-Lock Co., 38 Fed. Rep. 917.
This patent, as before stated, was reissued May 9, 1876, as No. 7104, and again, January 8, 1878, as No. 8035. The lock used by the defendants is made under letters patent No. 173,121, granted to Henry Gross, February 8, 1876, for an "improvement in time-attachments for locks." This patent was issued prior to the granting of any reissue of the Little patent. While the original patent, No. 146,832, had only three claims, reissue No. 7104 had eight claims, reissue No. 8035 had six claims, and reissue No. 8550 has seventeen claims. On comparing the various reissues with the original patent, it is found that the drawings and the description of them are substantially the same in all, with some changes in nomenclature; and it is quite apparent that the original patent was not
There is in the record a copy of the file-wrapper and contents of reissue No. 8035, applied for December 15, 1877, and granted January 8, 1878. The specification presented with the application contained only two claims, both of which made "a revolving dial" an essential element. On the 18th of December, 1877, an entirely new specification and claims were put in, the claims being ten in number. Claim 3 was as follows: "3. In a time-lock, the combination, substantially as above set forth, of the clock-work and two adjustable devices for determining, respectively, the times of locking and unlocking." That claim 3 is very similar to claim 7 of reissue No. 8550. On the 21st of December, 1877, that claim 3 was amended by striking out the word "clock-work," and inserting the words "time-movements," so that it became almost exactly the same as claim 7 of reissue No. 8550. On the 26th of December, 1877, that claim 3 was erased.
Claim 4 of reissue No. 8035, as originally applied for, read as follows: "The combination with one or more time-movements, of one or more wheels, H I, one or more ratchets, K L, and a common wheel, M, arranged as described, for the purposes set forth." This claim 4 was erased with claim 3, and in their place there was inserted the following as claim 3: "The combination with the time-movements of the wheels H I, the ratchets K L, and the common wheel, M, arranged as described, for the purpose set forth."
Claim 5 of reissue No. 8035, as applied for, was identical with claim 2 of the original patent, No. 146,832, as granted. That claim 5 was rejected by the examiner, on the ground that it was old in valve-gear for steam engines, with a reference to a prior patent; and on the 26th of December, 1877, it was erased and abandoned. Therefore, more than a year before reissue No. 8550 was granted, claim 2 of the original patent was abandoned by Little; and at the same time he also abandoned claim 3 of his application, after he had put it in such shape that it became substantially the same as claim 7 of
In the specification of reissue No. 8035, the following statements were made: "The object of my invention is to construct a time-lock, and to combine it with the multiple sliding bolt-work of a safe or vault-door, so that, by the continuous movement of its time mechanism, locking and unlocking will be effected daily or periodically... . The gist of my invention, therefore, is the combination, in a time-lock, of time mechanism revolving a graduated dial, which serves to oscillate a pivoted bent lever, that, in turn, induces the oscillation of a pivoted dog or obstruction to the retraction of the multiple sliding bolt-work. Subordinate to this main principle or chief organization of my time-lock, I provide that my dial shall be composite in its construction, whereby I obtain what I term a `differential cam' for convenience of adjustment." These statements do not appear in the specification of reissue No. 8550. In the latter specification, what had been previously called "a revolving graduated dial" is called "adjustable devices;" the dial is said to have "bolt or dog-actuating points;" and a statement is made that the lock of Little "is, so far as I am aware, the first time-lock which locks at a time determined by the time mechanism, while at the same time the hours for locking and unlocking can be changed without altering the construction of the lock." So that, in this reissue, which was granted almost five years after the date of the original patent, and over three years after the Gross patent was issued, the attempt is made by Little to cover all devices for determining the time of locking and unlocking, on the view that he was the first to invent a lock that would lock up as well as unlock at a predetermined time. This attempt is embodied in claims 1 and 7 of reissue No. 8550, which are here repeated: "1. The combination of independent multiple
Although the first reissue, No. 7104, was applied for March 15, 1876, more than two months after the Gross patent was issued, no such claims as the above were applied for or taken, nor were they taken in reissue No. 8035. Claims 3, 7 and 8 of reissue No. 7104 were abandoned in reissue No. 8035, and severally appear as claims 7, 16 and 17, in reissue No. 8550, claim 7 in No. 8550 being in these words, as claim 3, in No. 7104: "3. In a chronometric locking mechanism, the combination, substantially as before set forth, of the clock-work and two adjustable devices for determining, respectively, the time of locking and unlocking." Claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 11 in No. 8550 are entirely new. Claim 2 of the original patent, No. 146,832, was not retained in No. 8550, and only two claims out of the seventeen in No. 8550 are found in the original patent.
Infringement is alleged of claim 1 of reissue No. 8550, which is an entirely new claim, not found in the original patent or in any prior reissue, and of claim 7, which was claim 3 in reissue No. 7104, and was first amended and then abandoned in the application for reissue No. 8035. If claim 1 of reissue No. 8550 is construed to cover only the specific devices of Little, operating in the mode described by him, and thus is no broader than claim 2 of the original patent, the defendants' lock does not infringe it. If it is not so limited, it is void, under numerous decisions of this court.
In Little's time-lock, there is a compound cam-wheel or disc, composed of two cam-wheels placed face to face on the same axis, each having a portion of its outer edge cut away, and so arranged that they can be turned with relation to each other so as to increase the length of their common projection or common depression, and be fastened together in any desired
In the defendants' lock there is only one time-movement, and there are no wheels of any kind, much less wheels like the cam-wheels B and C of Little's original patent, with projections and depressions, which can be rotated so as to increase and diminish the surface of a common cam or depression; nor has it any cam projection or cam depression of any kind, formed in any manner, whose office is to lift and hold up and let fall a lever, and thus dog and release the bolt of a safe-door; nor has it a device of any kind capable of performing the function of Little's cam-wheels. Little does not describe or suggest, in his original patent, any way by which he can dispense with the use of his cam projections to lift and hold up the dog; and he confines claim 2 of his original patent to a combination in which two cam-wheels, capable of being rotated and adjusted with relation to each other, so as to increase and diminish the surface of a common cam, for the purpose of lifting and holding up the dog, are essential.
Claim 7 of reissue No. 8550 was evidently drawn so as to cover the time-attachment of the defendants' lock, which does not itself lock up or unlock the bolt-work, but only determines the time when the bolt work may be unlocked by the combination-lock. Claim 7 is not limited to devices which automatically lock and unlock, but extends to devices which merely interfere with mechanical locking and unlocking. Such a construction of claim 7, a claim once abandoned in the Patent Office and restored in this reissue, cannot be admitted in consistency with numerous decisions of this court on the
It is shown that it was old to use time mechanism, revolving dials with adjustable devices, pivoted levers and dogs, to lock and unlock door-bolts; and that the combination of clock-work, adjustable cam-wheels, and a two-armed lever oscillated thereby, was old. In this view, in his original patent, Little very properly limited his claims to his mode of connecting two clocks with a common wheel, so that both could act together in turning it, and either one could turn it alone in case the other stopped; and to the employment of the specific cam-wheels with depressions and projections so located as to increase and diminish the surface of a common cam by rotation on each other, so as to lift and hold up the dog behind the bolt of the door; and to the introduction of his Sunday wheel. The lock of the defendants did not infringe any of the claims of the original patent, because it did not have the two clocks, the Sunday wheel, the cam-wheels or any mechanical equivalent therefor, and did not move the dog automatically into the dogging position.
The application for reissue No. 7104 was made more than two years after the original patent was granted, and one month and seven days after the Gross patent was issued, containing the devices which are employed in the defendants' lock. Reissue No. 8550 was applied for nearly four years and nine months after the original patent was granted, and more than two years and eight months after the Gross patent was issued, and after the lock of the defendants had been put into use. No excuse is shown for these delays; nor is there any defect or insufficiency in the specification of the original patent. In December, 1877, during the pendency of the application for reissue No. 8035, Little acquiesced in the rejection, for want of novelty, of claim 2 of his original patent, and then abandoned a claim corresponding with claim 7 of reissue No. 8550, and took out reissue No. 8035 without such claim.
The lock of the defendants did not infringe any claim of
For these reasons, it must be held that the plaintiffs have no cause of action against the defendants under claims 1 and 7 of reissue No. 8550.
It results that the decree of February 12, 1886, must be affirmed so far as it relates to the Sargent reissue No. 7947, and reversed so far as it relates to the Little reissue No. 8550, and the cause be remanded to the Circuit Court with a direction to dismiss the bill of complaint, with costs to the defendants. As the plaintiffs fail in this court on both appeals, they are to pay the costs of this court on both appeals.