No. 18-16700, No. 18-17192, No. 19-15043.

2 F.4th 871 (2021)

Reynaldo GONZALEZ; the Estate of Nohemi Gonzalez; Beatriz Gonzalez, Individually and as Administrator of the Estate of Nohemi Gonzalez; Jose Hernandez; Rey Gonzalez; Paul Gonzalez, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. GOOGLE LLC, Defendant-Appellee. Mehier Taamneh; Lawrence Taamneh; Sara Taamneh; Dimana Taamneh, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. Twitter, Inc.; Google LLC; Facebook, Inc., Defendants-Appellees. Gregory Clayborn, Individually and as Successor-In-Interest of the Estate of Sierra Clayborn; Kim Clayborn; Tamishia Clayborn; Vanessa Nguyen, Individually and as Successor-In-Interest of the Estate of Tin Nguyen; Trung Do; Jacob Thalasinos; James Thalasinos, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. Twitter, Inc.; Facebook, Inc.; Google LLC, Defendants-Appellees.

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit.

Filed June 22, 2021.

Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Keith Altman (argued) and Daniel W. Weininger (argued), Excolo Law, Southfield, Michigan, Plaintiffs-Appellants Reynaldo Gonzalez, Mehier Taamneh, Lawrence Taamneh, Sara Taamneh, Dimana Taamneh, Gregory Clayborn, Kim Clayborn, Tamishia Clayborn, Vanessa Nguyen, Trung Do, Jacob Thalasinos, and James Thalasinos.

Robert J. Tolchin (argued) and Meir Katz , Berkman Law Office LLC, Brooklyn, New York; for Plaintiffs-Appellants Estate of Nohemi Gonzalez; Beatriz Gonzalez, Jose Hernandez, Rey Gonzalez, and Paul Gonzalez.

Brian M. Willen (argued), Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, New York, New York; David H. Kramer , Lauren Gallo White , and Kelly M. Knoll , Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Palo Alto, California; for Defendant-Appellee Google LLC.

Kristin A. Linsley (argued) and Jacob T. Spencer , Gibson Dunn & Crutcher LLP, San Francisco, California; for Defendant-Appellee Facebook Inc.

Seth P. Waxman , Patrick J. Carome , and Ari Holtzblatt , Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale & Dorr LLP, Washington, D.C., for Defendant-Appellee Twitter Inc.

Aaron Mackey and Sophia Cope , Electronic Frontier Foundation, San Francisco, California, for Amicus Curiae Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Partial Concurrence and Partial Dissent by Judge Gould.


We address three appeals arising from separate acts of terrorism—one in Paris, one in Istanbul, and one in San Bernardino —in which Nohemi Gonzalez, Nawras Alassaf, Sierra Clayborn, Tin Nguyen, and Nicholas Thalasinos lost their lives. The foreign terrorist organization known as ISIS took...

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