NOT FOR PUBLICATION
After David Daleiden requested public records from the University of Washington under Washington's Public Records Act, a group of individuals known as the "Doe Plaintiffs" brought this putative class action against Daleiden and the University to compel redaction of any personal identifying information in the records. Daleiden now appeals the district court's grant of a preliminary injunction prohibiting disclosure of "all personally identifying information or information from which a person's identity could be derived with reasonable certainty." We have jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1292(a)(1).
"[A] preliminary injunction is an extraordinary and drastic remedy, one that should not be granted unless the movant, by a clear showing, carries the burden of persuasion." Mazurek v. Armstrong, 520 U.S. 968, 972 (1997) (per curiam) (citation omitted). We review the grant of a preliminary injunction for abuse of discretion and may remand where a district court's findings of fact and conclusions of law supporting the injunction are insufficient to permit meaningful review. Fed. Trade Comm'n v. Enforma Nat. Prods., Inc., 362 F.3d 1204, 1211-12 (9th Cir. 2004). Here, a remand is appropriate.
The district court relied on a blanket finding that the entire putative class was engaged in protected First Amendment activity—a class that the University says could be as large as 600 people, although notices were sent to only 156 people according to the record. The district court then found that the entire putative class would likely face threats, harassment, and violence if the records were disclosed without redaction, a danger that the court concluded would impermissibly chill protected First Amendment activity.
To prevail on their First Amendment claim, the Doe Plaintiffs must show that particular individuals or groups of individuals
We remand for the district court to address how disclosure of specific information would violate the constitutional or statutory rights of particular individuals or groups of individuals. Because the district court is in the best position to deal with the nuances of these issues, we temporarily leave the preliminary injunction in place to allow the court to clarify the basis for any injunction.