SACHS, District Judge.
Shirley Curd brought this 42 U.S.C. § 1983 action against the City of Judsonia, Arkansas ("the City"), and White County, Arkansas, Sheriff Jess Odom.
Armed with an arrest warrant, City police officers Bobby Hale, the Chief of Police, and Darren Kee went to Curd's residence to arrest her on misdemeanor charges of battery and disorderly conduct. As they were escorting Curd out of the house, the officers initially told Curd that she would be able to drive her own car to the White County detention center (the City does not have a jail), and that she would be allowed to go next door to her office to get bail money. When Curd began to go next door, however, Chief Hale seized her arm, spun her around and told her to get into the police car. She complied.
At the time of Curd's arrest, the officers took her purse. After arriving at the detention center, Curd's purse was removed from her sight. When Curd asked for her purse to be placed in view, Chief Hale, some fifteen minutes after Curd's arrest, searched it.
During the booking process, Curd was fingerprinted three separate times. Curd expresses uncertainty about whether Chief Hale was involved in the fingerprinting. Chief Hale denied any involvement by himself or any member of the City police force, stating that the fingerprinting was done by a member of the Sheriff's department. Defendants do not offer an explanation for the repeated fingerprinting; Curd contends that harassment motivated the officers.
Curd's son posted bail and, following booking, Curd was released. Twenty days later, on September 5, 1996, Curd filed this action alleging violation of Federal constitutional rights.
We review the district court's grant of summary judgment de novo, applying the same standards as the district court. Mayard v. Hopwood, 105 F.3d 1226, 1227 (8th Cir.1997). Summary judgment is appropriate when, viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party, "there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and ... the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c).
A. Excessive Force Claim
Curd first claims that the district court erred in granting summary judgment on her excessive force claim. We disagree. Fourth Amendment excessive force claims are evaluated under a standard of "objective reasonableness." Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386, 395, 109 S.Ct. 1865, 1871, 104 L.Ed.2d 443 (1989); Greiner v. City of Champlin, 27 F.3d 1346, 1354 (8th Cir.1994). Even if seizing Curd's arm and turning her body was unnecessary to effect the arrest, we can not conclude that thislimited amount of force was objectively unreasonable.
B. Multiple Fingerprinting Claim
Curd next claims that the district court erred in granting summary judgment on her claim that fingerprinting her three times constituted an unreasonable search and seizure. We again disagree. The custodial fingerprinting of Curd during the booking process was routine; a complaint regarding multiple prints (like a complaint regarding several allegedly unnecessary photographs) following a valid arrest is also simply too minor to rise to the level of a constitutional violation. See, e.g., United States v. Weir, 657 F.2d 1005, 1007 (8th Cir.1983) (nonconsensual custodial clipping of hair "so minor ... [that] fourth amendment rights were not implicated"); United States v. Williams, 902 F.2d 678, 680-81 (8th Cir.1990) (suggesting that fingerprinting of suspect arrested upon probable cause does not constitute a search; even an ultraviolet light examination is not a search). Moreover, Curd expresses considerable uncertainty as to whether the City's officers conducted the fingerprinting, and Chief Hale expressly denies that any member of the City police department was involved.
We are aware of a remark in Davis v. Mississippi, 394 U.S. 721, 727, 89 S.Ct. 1394, 1397-98, 22 L.Ed.2d 676 (1969), that "the police need only one set of each person's prints." Even if the comment could pose a limitation on law enforcement rights when there is simply a "fingerprint detention," as discussed in Davis, we are satisfied that the ruling does not mean that an arrestee's Fourth Amendment rights are violated by taking several sets of fingerprints.
C. Purse Search
Curd finally claims that the district court erred in granting summary judgment on her claim that defendants unconstitutionally searched her purse after she asked that the purse be placed where she could see it. The district court concluded that the search constituted a valid inventory search. We need not decide whether this conclusion was correct,
Warrantless searches incident to a custodial arrest are "justified by the reasonableness of searching for weapons, instruments of escape, and evidence of crime when a person is taken into official custody and lawfully detained." United States v. Edwards, 415 U.S. 800, 802-03, 94 S.Ct. 1234, 1236-37, 39 L.Ed.2d 771 (1974) (citing United States v. Robinson, 414 U.S. 218, 94 S.Ct. 467, 38 L.Ed.2d 427 (1973)).
On the other hand, searches of the person and articles "immediately associated with the person of the arrestee," are measured with a different, more flexible constitutional time clock. Compare Chadwick, 433 U.S. at 15, 97 S.Ct. at 2486, and United States v. Schleis, 582 F.2d 1166, 1170 (8th Cir.1978) (en banc) (search of briefcase at station house not valid search incident to arrest); with Edwards, 415 U.S. at 803, 94 S.Ct. at 1237 (search of clothing after an overnight stay in jail is a valid search incident to arrest), and United States v. Phillips, 607 F.2d 808, 809-10 (8th Cir.1979) (search of defendant's wallet at station house a "substantial period of time" after his arrest valid search incident to arrest). Searches of the person and those articles "immediately associated" with the person may be made either at the time of arrest or when the accused arrives at the place of detention. Edwards, 415 U.S. at 803, 94 S.Ct. at 1237. Unlike luggage, courts considering the question have generally concluded that a purse, like a wallet, is an object "immediately associated" with the person. See, e.g., United States v. Berry, 560 F.2d 861, 864 (7th Cir.1977), vacated on other grounds, 571 F.2d 2 (1978); United States v. Venizelos, 495 F.Supp. 1277, 1281-83 (S.D.N.Y.1980); and State court cases within the Circuit — Sumlin v. State, 266 Ark. 709, 587 S.W.2d 571, 577 (1979) (en banc); State v. Woods, 637 S.W.2d 113, 116 (Mo.Ct.App.1982); State v. Hershey, 371 N.W.2d 190, 192 (Iowa Ct.App.1985).
Id. at 1114.
We agree with the general view of this issue. The search of Curd's purse at the
Moreover, before placing the purse in view of, or returning it to, Curd, who was charged with assault, it was objectively reasonable to examine the purse for items that could be dangerous. See, e.g., Wade, 573 N.W.2d at 231 ("Not only was it reasonable for the officer to search the contents of her purse before giving it back to her ..., we think it would be unreasonable for arrestees to expect that they can get back a purse without examination while they are still in custody at a police station."). Curd's privacy rights in the purse, greatly diminished by the arrest and for a reasonable time thereafter, yield to police interest in weapons and evidence. See Edwards, 415 U.S. at 808-09, 94 S.Ct. at 1239-40 ("`While the legal arrest of a person should not destroy the privacy of his premises, it does — for at least a reasonable time and to a reasonable extent — take his own privacy out of the realm of protection from police interest in weapons, means of escape, and evidence.'") (quoting United States v. DeLeo, 422 F.2d 487, 493 (1st Cir.1970)).
Although it could be argued that a brief examination of the purse should suffice, rather than the intrusive and leisurely study of contents typical of an inventory search, we hesitate to endorse further complications in the law, requiring difficult case-by-case application. See Chadwick, 433 U.S. at 22 n. 3, 97 S.Ct. at 2489 n. 3 (Blackmun, J., dissenting). Having determined that there was objective reasonableness, we are also precluded from putting law enforcement personnel to a further test of subjective good faith. Even assuming a possible improper motive, including simple harassment, current Fourth Amendment law shields law enforcement personnel from judicial sanction. See Graham, 490 U.S. at 397, 109 S.Ct. at 1872 ("An officer's evil intentions will not make a Fourth Amendment violation out of an objectively reasonable" act); Blue v. Koren, 72 F.3d 1075, 1081 (2dCir.1995) ("motive is irrelevant, because a Fourth Amendment claim must be based on a showing that the search in question was objectively unreasonable.").
For the reasons indicated, we affirm.