Justice Ginsburg, delivered the opinion of the Court.
Twelve-year-old Natalie Calhoun was killed in a jet ski accident on July 6, 1989. At the time of her death, she was vacationing with family friends at a beach-front resort in Puerto Rico. Alleging that the jet ski was defectively designed
Traditionally, state remedies have been applied in accident cases of this order—maritime wrongful-death cases in which no federal statute specifies the appropriate relief and the decedent was not a seaman, longshore worker, or person otherwise engaged in a maritime trade. We hold, in accord with the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, that state remedies remain applicable in such cases and have not been displaced by the federal maritime wrongful-death action recognized in Moragne v. States Marine Lines, Inc., 398 U.S. 375 (1970).
Natalie Calhoun, the 12-year-old daughter of respondents Lucien and Robin Calhoun, died in a tragic accident on July 6, 1989. On vacation with family friends at a resort hotel in Puerto Rico, Natalie had rented a "WaveJammer" jet ski manufactured by Yamaha Motor Company, Ltd., and distributed by Yamaha Motor Corporation, U. S. A. (collectively, Yamaha), the petitioners in this case. While riding the WaveJammer, Natalie slammed into a vessel anchored in the waters off the hotel frontage, and was killed.
The Calhouns, individually and in their capacities as administrators of their daughter's estate, sued Yamaha in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Invoking Pennsylvania's wrongful-death and survival statutes, 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 8301-8302 (1982 and Supp. 1995), the Calhouns asserted several bases for recovery (including negligence, strict liability, and breach of implied warranties), and sought damages for lost future earnings, loss of society, loss of support and services, and funeral expenses, as well as punitive damages. They grounded federal
Yamaha moved for partial summary judgment, arguing that the federal maritime wrongful-death action this Court recognized in Moragne v. States Marine Lines, Inc. , 398 U.S. 375 (1970), provided the exclusive basis for recovery, displacing all remedies afforded by state law. Under Moragne, Yamaha contended, the Calhouns could recover as damages only Natalie's funeral expenses. The District Court agreed with Yamaha that Moragne `s maritime death action displaced state remedies; the court held, however, that loss of society and loss of support and services were compensable under Moragne.
Both sides asked the District Court to present questions for immediate interlocutory appeal pursuant to 28 U. S. C. § 1292(b). The District Court granted the parties' requests, and in its § 1292(b) certifying order stated:
Although the Court of Appeals granted the interlocutory review petition, the panel to which the appeal was assigned did not reach the questions presented in the certified order, for it determined that an anterior issue was pivotal. The District Court, as just recounted, had concluded that any damages the Calhouns might recover from Yamaha would be governed exclusively by federal maritime law. But the Third Circuit panel questioned that conclusion and inquired whether state wrongful-death and survival statutes supplied the remedial prescriptions for the Calhouns' complaint. The appellate panel asked whether the state remedies endured or were "displaced by a federal maritime rule of decision." 40 F.3d 622, 624 (1994). Ultimately, the Court of Appeals ruled that state-law remedies apply in this case. Id., at 644.
In our order granting certiorari, we asked the parties to brief a preliminary question: "Under 28 U. S. C. § 1292(b), can the courts of appeals exercise jurisdiction over any question that is included within the order that contains the controlling question of law identified by the district court?" 514 U.S. 1126 (1995). The answer to that question, we are satisfied, is yes.
Section 1292(b) provides, in pertinent part:
As the text of § 1292(b) indicates, appellate jurisdiction applies to the order certified to the court of appeals, and is not tied to the particular question formulated by the district court. The court of appeals may not reach beyond the certified order to address other orders made in the case. United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669, 677 (1987). But the appellate court may address any issue fairly included within the certified order because "it is the order that is appealable, and not the controlling question identified by the district court." 9 J. Moore & B. Ward, Moore's Federal Practice ¶ 110.25, p. 300 (2d ed. 1995). See also 16 C. Wright, A. Miller, E. Cooper, & E. Gressman, Federal Practice and Procedure § 3929, pp. 144-145 (1977) ("[T]he court of appeals may review the entire order, either to consider a question different than the one certified as controlling or to decide the case despite the lack of any identified controlling question."); Note, Interlocutory Appeals in the Federal Courts Under 28 U. S. C. § 1292(b), 88 Harv. L. Rev. 607, 628-629 (1975) ("scope of review [includes] all issues material to the order in question").
We therefore proceed to the issue on which certiorari was granted: Does the federal maritime claim for wrongful death recognized in Moragne supply the exclusive remedy in cases involving the deaths of nonseafarers
Because this case involves a watercraft collision on navigable waters, it falls within admiralty's domain. See Sisson v. Ruby, 497 U.S. 358, 361-367 (1990); Foremost Ins. Co. v. Richardson, 457 U.S. 668, 677 (1982). "With admiralty jurisdiction," we have often said, "comes the application of substantive admiralty law." East River S. S. Corp. v. Transamerica Delaval Inc., 476 U.S. 858, 864 (1986). The exercise of admiralty jurisdiction, however, "does not result in automatic displacement of state law." Jerome B. Grubart, Inc. v. Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co., 513 U.S. 527, 545 (1995). Indeed, prior to Moragne, federal admiralty courts routinely applied state wrongful-death and survival statutes inmaritime accident cases.
Our review of maritime wrongful-death law begins with The Harrisburg, 119 U.S. 199 (1886), where we held that the general maritime law (a species of judge-made federal common law) did not afford a cause of action for wrongful death. The Harrisburg Court said that wrongful-death actions are statutory and may not be created by judicial decree. The Court did not question the soundness of this view, or examine the historical justifications that account for it. Instead, the Court merely noted that common law in the United States, like the common law of England, did not allow recovery "for an injury which results in death," id., at 204 (internal quotation marks omitted), and that no country had "adopted a different rule on this subject for the sea from that which it maintains on the land," id., at 213. The Court did not consider itself free to chart a different course by crafting a judge-made wrongful-death action under our maritime law.
Federal admiralty courts tempered the harshness of The Harrisburg `s rule by allowing recovery under state
State wrongful-death statutes proved an adequate supplement to federal maritime law, until a series of this Court's
The disparity between the unseaworthiness doctrine's strict-liability standard and negligence-based state wrongful-death statutes figured prominently in our landmark Moragne decision. Petsonella Moragne, the widow of a longshore worker killed in Florida's territorial waters, brought suit under Florida's wrongful-death and survival statutes, alleging both negligence and unseaworthiness.
The Court acknowledged in Moragne that The Tungus had led to considerable uncertainty over the role state law should play in remedying deaths in territorial waters, but concluded that "the primary source of the confusion is not to be found in The Tungus, but in The Harrisburg. " 398 U. S., at 378. Upon reexamining the soundness of The Harrisburg, we decided that its holding, "somewhat dubious even when rendered, is such an unjustifiable anomaly in the present maritime law that it should no longer be followed." 398 U. S., at 378. Accordingly, the Court overruled The Harrisburg and held that an action "lie[s] under general maritime law for death caused by violation of maritime duties." 398 U. S., at 409.
Yamaha argues that Moragne —despite its focus on "maritime duties" owed to maritime workers—covers the waters, creating a uniform federal maritime remedy for all deaths occurring in state territorial waters, and ousting all previously available state remedies. In Yamaha's view, state remedies can no longer supplement general maritime law
The uniformity concerns that prompted us to overrule The Harrisburg, however, were of a different order than those invoked by Yamaha. Moragne did not reexamine the soundness of The Harrisburg out of concern that state monetary awards in maritime wrongful-death cases were excessive, or that variations in the remedies afforded by the States threatened to interfere with the harmonious operation of maritime law. Variations of this sort had long been deemed compatible with federal maritime interests. See Western Fuel, 257 U. S., at 242. The uniformity concern that drove our decision in Moragne related, instead, to the availability of unseaworthiness as a basis of liability.
By 1970, when Moragne was decided, claims premised on unseaworthiness had become "the principal vehicle for recovery" by seamen and other maritime workers injured or killed in the course of their employment. Moragne, 398 U. S., at 399. But with The Harrisburg in place, troubling anomalies had developed that many times precluded the survivors of maritime workers from recovering for deaths caused by an unseaworthy vessel. The Moragne Court identified three anomalies and concluded they could no longer be tolerated.
First, the Court noted that "within territorial waters, identical conduct violating federal law (here the furnishing of an unseaworthy vessel) produces liability if the victim is merely injured, but frequently not if he is killed." 398 U. S., at 395. This occurred because in nonfatal injury cases, state substantive liability standards were superseded by federal maritime law, see Kermarec v. Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, 358 U.S. 625, 628 (1959); Pope & Talbot, 346 U. S., at 409, which provided for maritime worker recovery based on unseaworthiness. But if the same worker met death in the territorial waters of a State whose wrongfuldeath statute did not encompass unseaworthiness (as was the
Second, we explained in Moragne that "identical breaches of the duty to provide a seaworthy ship, resulting in death, produce liability outside the three-mile limit . .. but not within the territorial waters of a State whose local statute excludes unseaworthiness claims." 398 U. S., at 395. This occurred because survivors of a maritime worker killed on the high seas could sue for wrongful death under the Death on the High Seas Act (DOHSA), 46 U. S. C. App. § 761 et seq. (1988 ed.), which encompasses unseaworthiness as a basis of liability. Moragne, 398 U. S., at 395 (citing Kernan v. American Dredging Co., 355 U.S. 426, 430, n. 4 (1958)).
Finally, we pointed out that "a true seaman [a member of a ship's company] . . . is provided no remedy for death caused by unseaworthiness within territorial waters, while a longshoreman, to whom the duty of seaworthiness was extended only because he performs work traditionally done by seamen, does have such a remedy when allowed by a state statute." 398 U. S., at 395-396. This anomaly stemmed from the Court's rulings in Lindgren v. United States, 281 U.S. 38 (1930), and Gillespie v. United States Steel Corp., 379 U.S. 148 (1964), that the Jones Act, 46 U. S. C. App. § 688 (1988 ed.), which provides only a negligence-based claim for the wrongful death of seamen, precludes any state remedy, even one accommodating unseaworthiness. As a result, at the time Moragne was decided, the survivors of a longshore worker killed in the territorial waters of a State whose wrongful-death statute incorporated unseaworthiness could sue under that theory, but the survivors of a similarly situated seaman could not.
Moragne, in sum, centered on the extension of relief, not on the contraction of remedies. The decision recalled that "`it better becomes the humane and liberal character of proceedings in admiralty to give than to withhold the remedy, when not required to withhold it by established and inflexible rules.' " Id. , at 387 (quoting The Sea Gull, 21 F. Cas. 909, 910 (No. 12,578) (CC Md. 1865) (Chase, C. J.)). The Court tied Petsonella Moragne's plea based on the unseaworthiness
Our understanding of Moragne accords with that of the Third Circuit, which Judge Becker set out as follows:
We have reasoned similarly in Sun Ship, Inc. v. Pennsylvania, 447 U.S. 715 (1980), where we held that a State may apply its workers' compensation scheme to land-based injuries that fall within the compass of the Longshore and Harbor
When Congress has prescribed a comprehensive tort recovery regime to be uniformly applied, there is, we have generally recognized, no cause for enlargement of the damages statutorily provided. See Miles, 498 U. S., at 30-36 (Jones Act, rather than general maritime law, determines damages recoverable in action for wrongful death of seamen); Offshore Logistics, Inc. v. Tallentire, 477 U.S. 207, 232 (1986) (DOHSA, which limits damages to pecuniary losses, may not be supplemented by nonpecuniary damages under a state wrongful-death statute); Mobil Oil Corp. v. Higginbotham, 436 U.S. 618, 624-625 (1978) (DOHSA precludes damages for loss of society under general maritime law). But Congress has not prescribed remedies for the wrongful deaths of nonseafarers in territorial waters. See Miles, 498 U. S., at 31. There is, however, a relevant congressional disposition. Section 7 of DOHSA states: "The provisions of any State statute giving or regulating rights of action or remedies for death
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For the reasons stated, we hold that the damages available for the jet ski death of Natalie Calhoun are properly governed by state law.
Briefs of amici curiae urging affirmance were filed for the Association of Trial Lawyers of America by Ross Diamond III and Pamela Liapakis; and for the National Conference of State Legislatures et al. by Richard Ruda and James I. Crowley.