As the personal representative of her husband's estate, Michelle S. Benson ("Benson") sued the Minnesota Board of Medical Practice ("Board") and the Minnesota Department of Health ("Department") for publishing articles in violation of her deceased husband's statutory privacy rights. The Board and Department moved for summary judgment on the grounds that the decedent had consented to the publications, Benson failed to establish a prima facie case of causation or damage, and the action does not survive the decedent's death. The trial court granted judgment holding the action was barred by the survival statute, Minn.Stat. § 573.01 (1992). On appeal from that judgment, Benson argues the trial court erred in applying the relevant law, and abused its discretion in denying her motion to amend the complaint to add a prayer for exemplary damages.
The decedent formerly practiced medicine in Minneapolis. In June of 1990, he noticed skin lesions on his hands, arm, thigh and foot. The lesions produced fluids, bled, and eventually formed scabs. In September of 1990, the decedent tested positive for the presence of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV) antibody, and the infection on his hand was identified as mycobacterium marinum, an AIDS-defining diagnosis. After dermatologic treatment, the decedent experienced no more drainage and his lesions healed by February of 1991.
In September of 1990, the Department received the first report regarding the decedent. In January of 1991, the Department learned the dermatitis on the decedent's hands had been more severe than originally thought, the decedent had failed to follow standard infection control procedures, and the decedent may have posed a risk of HIV infection to his patients. In February, the board imposed restrictions on the decedent's medical practice and asked the Department to conduct an epidemiological investigation of the decedent's practice from May 1990 through March 1991. The decedent complied with all restrictions imposed by the Board.
In May of 1991, the Department's legal counsel met with the decedent and his attorney to tell them about the investigation. The decedent agreed to cooperate and to disclose to his patients his HIV status, his dermatologic status, and aspects of his medical practice and infection control procedures. The
The release specifically reserved the decedent's consent from:
In June of 1991, the decedent discussed his HIV and dermatitis status and aspects of his medical practice at a press conference and in a letter to his patients. That conference and the details of the decedent's announcement were covered extensively by the media. The results of the costly epidemiological investigation showed none of the decedent's at-risk patients contracted HIV. The Department reported the investigation's methodology, procedures, and conclusions in an article in the New England Journal of Medicine and an article in the Department's Disease Control Newsletter that appeared in November and December of 1991.
In September of 1992, the decedent died as a result of complications associated with AIDS. Benson sued the Board, Department, and the individuals who had authored the two articles. She claimed the articles violated the decedent's statutory privacy rights, and caused the decedent to suffer emotional and physical devastation, and professional humiliation and ostracism. Prior to the entry of judgment, Benson dismissed the individual defendants.
Minn.R.Civ.P. 56.03 authorizes summary judgment when no genuine issue exists as to any material fact and where determination of the applicable law will resolve the controversy. See Wartnick v. Moss & Barnett, 490 N.W.2d 108, 112 (Minn.1992) (in reviewing summary judgment, the evidence is viewed in a light most favorable to nonmoving party to determine whether fact issues exist and whether trial court erroneously applied law). All parties agree there are no material facts in dispute and the question before us involves an interpretation of two statutes. Statutory interpretation based on a given set of facts is a question of law, and we need not defer to the ultimate decision of the trial court. Frost-Benco Elec. Ass'n v. Minnesota Pub. Utils. Comm'n, 358 N.W.2d 639, 642 (Minn.1984).
Benson seeks damages for violations of the decedent's privacy interests under the Minnesota Government Data Practices Act, Minn.Stat. §§ 13.01-13.99 (1992). We are asked to decide whether Benson's cause of action survives her husband's death. Minn. Stat. § 573.01 (1992) states "[a] cause of action arising out of an injury to the person dies with the person of the party in whose favor it exists, except as provided in section 573.02." Section 573.02 (1992) allows wrongful death actions and claims for pecuniary losses to a decedent's estate to survive the death of the decedent. See Dahl v. Northwestern Nat'l Bank of Mpls., 265 Minn. 216, 217-18, 121 N.W.2d 321, 322 (1963) (wrongful death actions not barred by survival statute).
Benson is suing for injury to the decedent's statutory privacy interests. The alleged wrongful publications occurred in November and December of 1991, while the decedent was still alive. The alleged violations are thus personal to the decedent, not violations of the estate's property interests under the statute. See Minn.Stat. §§ 13.04 (rights of individuals), 13.05 (duties owed to individuals), 13.08 (agency liable to persons), 13.10 (data on decedents).
Our conclusion that an invasion of decedent's statutory privacy rights constitutes a personal injury is supported by general tort principles and foreign case law. Although Minnesota does not recognize an independent tort for invasion of privacy, such a tort is a cause of action for personal injury. See Restatement (Second) of Torts § 652I (privacy right is purely personal); Hendry v. Conner, 303 Minn. 317, 319, 226 N.W.2d 921, 923 (1975) (Minnesota has never recognized an action for invasion of privacy); Markgraf v. Douglas Corp., 468 N.W.2d 80, 84 (Minn. App.1991) (same). In addition, foreign jurisdictions hold an action for invasion of privacy, whether statutory or common law, is personal and abates upon the death of the person whose privacy is invaded. See, e.g., Pirone v. MacMillan, Inc., 894 F.2d 579, 585 (2d Cir.1990); Ravellette v. Smith, 300 F.2d 854, 857-58 (7th Cir.1962); Shapiro v. Smith, 652 F.Supp. 218 (S.D.Ohio 1986); Reeves v. United Artists, 572 F.Supp. 1231, 1234 (N.D.Ohio 1983); Maritote v. Desilu Prod., Inc., 230 F.Supp. 721, 724-25 (N.D.Ill.1964); Hendrickson v. California Newspapers, Inc., 48 Cal.App.3d 59, 121 Cal.Rptr. 429, 431 (1975); Swickard v. Wayne County Medical Examiner, 438 Mich. 536, 475 N.W.2d 304, 311 (1991); McLean v. Rogers, 100 Mich.App. 734, 300 N.W.2d 389, 391 (1980); In re Brown, 478 So.2d 1033, 1041 (Miss.1985); Smith v. Long Island Jewish-Hillside Medical Ctr., 118 A.D.2d 553, 499 N.Y.S.2d 167, 168 (1986); Moore v. Charles B. Pierce Film Enters., Inc., 589 S.W.2d 489, 491 (Tex.Civ. App.1979); Fretz v. Anderson, 5 Utah.2d 290, 300 P.2d 642, 646 (1956); Strickland v. Deaconess Hosp., 47 Wn.App. 262, 735 P.2d 74, 76 (1987), pet. for rev. denied (Wash. July 1, 1987).
The nature of the damages sought by Benson, while not determinative, also demonstrates the personal nature of the injury alleged. Benson claims damages for the decedent's emotional and physical devastation, and professional humiliation and ostracism. Lawsuits for emotional distress are disfavored even where the plaintiff is alive. See Hubbard v. United Press Int'l, Inc., 330 N.W.2d 428, 438 (Minn. 1983) (claims for mental anguish are speculative and likely to lead to fictitious allegations); Eklund v. Vincent Brass & Aluminum Co., 351 N.W.2d 371, 379 (Minn.App.1984) (tort claims seeking damages for intentional infliction of emotional distress are disfavored); Restatement (Second) of Torts § 436A cmt. b (1965); see generally Michael K. Steenson, The Anatomy of Emotional Distress Claims in Minnesota, 19 Wm. Mitchell L.Rev. 1 (1993) (discussing history of emotional distress law and standards for recovery). Because the alleged injuries are so personal, a jury would have to guess on the extent and nature of the decedent's emotional devastation, humiliation and ostracism without his presence and testimony at trial. See Moore, 589 S.W.2d at 491 (law is rightfully wary of claims for injuries which are purely emotional and where the difficulty of judging the validity of complaints which are essentially subjective makes the damages of spurious actions substantial).
Benson insists all causes of action survive the death of either party, except those arising
Our resolution of this issue obviates the necessity to address: (1) whether the trial court abused its discretion by denying Benson's motion to amend to add punitive damages; (2) whether the decedent consented to the two publications; and (3) whether the articles published information not already in the public domain. In addition, the reply brief of the Board and Department is immaterial to the determinative issue on appeal. We thus do not accept, and this opinion does not rely, on the material contained in that brief.
Benson's claim for invasion of the decedent's statutory privacy interests is an action for personal injury which does not survive decedent's death. The trial court properly granted summary judgment in favor of the Department and Board.