CUDAHY, Circuit Judge.
The defendants were convicted of conspiracy to purchase marijuana with intent to distribute. They requested a new trial because one of the witnesses at trial, a government agent, had testified falsely about the number of telephone conversations he had had with one of the defendants the morning of the sting operation. The district court denied the motion for a new trial. We affirm.
The four co-defendants in this case, Peter J. Kaufmann, Jan E. Ostermeier, William C. Cummings and Terrell D. Brown,
At trial the government's principal witness, Agent John Holm of the Division of Criminal Investigation of the Wisconsin Department of Justice, testified that on June 15, 1984, the date of the sting operation, he had not spoken to Kaufmann before eleven that morning. After trial the defendants moved to vacate their convictions, or in the alternative for a new trial, because Holm had testified falsely at trial. After a hearing the district court found that Holm's testimony was false. Holm had in fact called Kaufmann three times before 11 a.m. on June 15. The district court, however, explicitly declined to find whether Holm had perjured himself. Presumably it was only considering whether the defendants
On appeal we remanded to the district court to determine whether the prosecution's case included perjured testimony and whether the prosecution knew, or should have known, of the perjury under the standard articulated in Napue v. Illinois, 360 U.S. 264, 269, 79 S.Ct. 1173, 1177, 3 L.Ed.2d 1217 (1959). See United States v. Kaufmann, 783 F.2d 708 (7th Cir.1986). On remand the district court found that Holm did not know that he was testifying falsely about the telephone calls. The district court further found that the prosecution did not know that the testimony was false and that the circumstances were not such that the prosecutor should have known of its falsity. The district court thus reinstated its denial of the motion for a new trial. Now that the appropriate findings are before us, we will address the merits of the defendants' appeal of their convictions.
The defendants each make different arguments. Kaufmann argues that the record does not support the district court's conclusion that the prosecutor did not know that Holm's testimony was false. He also argues that the district court's theory of Holm's credibility is flawed. Ostermeier argues that he is entitled to a new trial under Larrison and also because of the government's misconduct. Further, he argues that there was insufficient evidence to convict him. Cummings argues that he is entitled to a new trial under Larrison. All of the defendants contend that the district court should have held an evidentiary hearing on remand.
It is within the sound discretion of the district court to decide whether a new trial should be granted on the basis of newly discovered evidence. See United States v. Nero, 733 F.2d 1197, 1202 (7th Cir.1984). On appeal we only review the district court's decision for an abuse of discretion. Id. The heavy burden placed upon the appellant in this situation has repeatedly been noted by this court:
Id. (quoting United States v. Davis, 604 F.2d 474, 484 (7th Cir.1979)).
In his initial brief to this court, Kaufmann argued that he was entitled to a new trial under the standard articulated in Napue. Under that standard a conviction must be set aside if the prosecution's case includes perjured testimony, the prosecution knew, or should have known, of the perjury, and there is any reasonable likelihood that the false testimony could have affected the judgment of the jury. See United States v. Bagley, ___ U.S. ___, 105 S.Ct. 3375, 3382 & n. 8, 87 L.Ed.2d 481 (1985); United States v. Agurs, 427 U.S. 97, 103, 96 S.Ct. 2392, 2397, 49 L.Ed.2d 342 (1976); Giglio v. United States, 405 U.S. 150, 153-54, 92 S.Ct. 763, 765-66, 31 L.Ed.2d 104 (1972); Napue v. Illinois, 360 U.S. 264, 269-71, 79 S.Ct. 1173, 1177-78, 3 L.Ed.2d 1217 (1959); United States v. Jackson, 780 F.2d 1305, 1309 (7th Cir.1986); United States ex rel. Smith v. Fairman, 769 F.2d 386, 392 (7th Cir.1985).
In light of the district court's findings on remand, Kaufmann argues that a prosecutor cannot obtain a conviction through the knowing use of false evidence, even if the testimony is only mistaken rather than perjured, and that the record does not support the district court's finding that the prosecutor did not know that the testimony was false. Kaufmann argues that the record contains no evidence as to the state of the prosecutor's knowledge of the falsity of Holm's testimony. In the case before us, however, it is reasonable to infer
District Court Order (March 19, 1986) at 10. The district court did not abuse its discretion in finding that Holm did not commit perjury and that the prosecutor did not know of the falsity of Holm's testimony.
Kaufmann also argues that the district court's theory of Holm's credibility was faulty. He argues that the district court erred because it predicated its theory of credibility in part on Kaufmann's failure to raise an entrapment defense. Kaufmann argues that he did in fact raise an entrapment defense. He cites to portions of his opening argument at trial, which do contain contentions that he was entrapped. However, Kaufmann apparently did not pursue the entrapment defense beyond his opening argument. The jury instructions submitted by Kaufmann did not contain an entrapment instruction, and he did not request such an instruction during the jury instruction conference. Further, the fact that Kaufmann did not raise an entrapment defense was only one of several reasons from which the district court concluded that Holm did not perjure himself.
Ostermeier's original appellate brief does not rely on Napue in arguing for a new
733 F.2d at 1202 (quoting Larrison, 24 F.2d at 87-88) (emphasis in original).
The district court found that the jury would not have reached a different conclusion had the false testimony not been given. Ostermeier argues that the jury might have reached a different conclusion because if Holm had been exposed before the jury as having deliberately told falsehoods his credibility would have been seriously undermined. However, the district court found that Holm did not know that he was testifying falsely. Thus it is unlikely that exposure of the falsehood would have had such a significant effect on his credibility. Further, the district court found that the evidence of the additional calls would not affect the outcome of the trial because, although it might have allowed for further impeachment of Holm, Ostermeier's attorney had already done a good job of impeaching him. Transcript of Motion Hearing (April 11, 1985) at 87. We cannot say that the district court abused its discretion in finding that the second prong of the Larrison test was not met.
Ostermeier also argues that he should be granted a new trial because of the government's misconduct. He identifies three instances of alleged misconduct: 1) the falsehoods told by Holm at trial; 2) the failure of the government to disclose the three phone calls made by Holm before 11 a.m. on June 15, 1984; 3) the failure of the government to disclose the whereabouts of a witness, Earl Clark Brown, until such time as a proper investigation by defense counsel was impossible. The first two instances of alleged misconduct are disposed of by the district court's sustainable findings that Holm did not know that he was testifying falsely and that the prosecutor did not know of the falsity of the testimony.
As to the third ground, the failure of the government to reveal the whereabouts of Brown, the government argues that this issue was not presented to the district court in the motion for a new trial and thus cannot be presented on appeal. Ostermeier argues that the issue was presented to the district court because the court had before it a motion to require production of the witness.
Ostermeier's final argument is that there was insufficient evidence for the jury to convict him. "We may overturn a jury verdict only if `the record contains no evidence, regardless of how it is weighed, from which the jury could find guilt beyond
Ostermeier was present at the site of the reverse sting at the time of the arrest. The jury was instructed (and Ostermeier does not challenge this instruction) that, although mere presence at the scene of a crime or mere association with the conspirators will not by themselves support a conspiracy conviction, presence or a single act is sufficient if the circumstances permit the inference that the presence or the act was intended to advance the ends of the conspiracy. Ostermeier arrived at the scene in a vehicle with Kaufmann and Brown, two of the other three defendants. Tr. Vol. II at 42-44. He conversed with Holm about the transaction. Holm testified at trial that "Jan Ostermeier said that money was no problem as long as the marijuana was of relatively good quality," and that "Jan Ostermeier stated that the marijuana that Jan Ostermeier, Terrell Brown and Peter Kaufmann were going to be purchasing in fact was already sold to prospective buyers." Tr. Vol. II at 46-47. On cross-examination Holm admitted that he had testified before the grand jury that Ostermeier had said that "money is not a problem to these people." Tr. Vol. II at 76-77. Holm also admitted that he had testified: "It's just a matter of them obtaining the marijuana first. For example, the marijuana that they were going to obtain today, meaning the 200 pounds, was already sold." Tr. Vol. II at 77. We agree with the district court that although the evidence against Ostermeier is weak, it is sufficient to support the jury verdict.
In his supplemental brief, Ostermeier argues that the district court abused its discretion in finding that Holm and the prosecutor did not know that Holm's testimony was false. We have already addressed this issue in considering Kaufmann's claims. Ostermeier, however has raised an additional point that merits brief attention. He argues that to accept the district court's March 19, 1986 opinion, one must accept Holm's selective memory. Ostermeier claims that it is implausible that Holm remembered some phone calls but forgot others. We believe, however, that the district court did not abuse its discretion. The district court devoted considerable attention to the issue whether Holm could have forgotten certain calls but not others:
District Court Order (March 19, 1986) at 9-10. Hence, we must reject Ostermeier's arguments.
Cummings argues that the failure to disclose the telephone conversations undermined two prongs of his defense: 1) that he participated only in preliminary negotiations
Both Ostermeier and Cummings argue that the district court should have held a further evidentiary hearing on remand because a sufficient factual record was not previously developed on the issue of whether the prosecution knew of the false testimony. They argue that a sufficient factual record was not developed because the hearing on the motions for a new trial dealt only with the Larrison issue. We do not believe that the district court erred by not conducting an additional hearing. First, we have already concluded that the district court did not abuse its discretion by finding, on the basis of the record before it, that the prosecutor did not know of the falsity of Holm's testimony. Second, the defendants do not argue that they requested
The district court did not abuse its discretion in denying the defendants' motions for new trial. The false testimony in this case does not require that the convictions be vacated. The district court's judgment is affirmed.
District Court Order (March 19, 1986) at 7-9.
United States v. Kaufmann, Order 84-CR-39-C (N.D.Ill. January 24, 1985).
Supplemental Brief of Defendant Cummings at 6 (emphasis in original).
Supplemental Brief of Defendant Cummings at 7-8 (emphasis in original).