Rehearing en banc Denied June 14, 1978.
This is an appeal from a conviction for aggravated robbery. V.T.C.A., Penal Code, Sec. 29.03. Punishment was assessed by the court at 20 years' imprisonment.
The evidence adduced at trial revealed that on January 26, 1975, at 9:30 p. m., Betty Andrews, the night manager of a Quik Sak convenience store in Fort Worth, was robbed of $150.00. Andrews testified that at the time of the robbery she was talking to a regular customer, Gregg Johanson. The appellant, accompanied by four others, entered the store carrying a flashlight. The appellant and one other man stated in unison, "Is this y'all's flashlight?" Johanson stated that the flashlight was his and when he reached out, one of the men who had accompanied the appellant grabbed Johanson's arm and placed a gun to his head. Johanson was instructed to lay on the floor facing away from the activity. The man with the gun demanded the money from witness Andrews and she stated, "It's in the register." The appellant then took the cash drawer out of the cash register and they left.
In his first ground of error, the appellant contends that the trial court erred in failing to suppress the in-court identification and all evidence of a lineup because such lineup was held without an attorney representing
The appellant contends that the lineup was held after he had been charged with aggravated robbery and he was therefore entitled to counsel pursuant to the case of Kirby v. Illinois, 406 U.S. 682, 92 S.Ct. 1877, 32 L.Ed.2d 411 (1972). In Kirby, the United States Supreme Court held that a lineup after arrest, but before the initiation of any adversary criminal proceedings, is not a criminal proceeding where the accused as a matter of absolute right is entitled to counsel. Lane v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 506 S.W.2d 212; Gillon v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 491 S.W.2d 893; Ellingsworth v. State, Tex.Cr. App., 487 S.W.2d 108.
In support of his contention, appellant relies upon the printed magistrate's form, which reads, in part: "You are charged with the offense of Aggravated Robbery." Appellant asserts that this amounted to the initiation of adversary criminal proceedings sufficient to invoke the appellant's right to counsel under Kirby. However, the sentence immediately following the one relied upon by the appellant states: "An affidavit charging you with this offense (has not) been filed in this court."
It is clear that the form signed and relied upon by the appellant is simply an acknowledgment that a magistrate's warning was given pursuant to Article 15.17, V.A.C.C.P.
Even if it could be argued that formal charges had been filed prior to the lineup, no reversible error would be presented. The record reflects that Andrews' in-court identification of the appellant was of independent origin based on her observations of the appellant at the Quik Sak convenience store and not tainted by the lineup. Ragon v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 506 S.W.2d 214; Nichols v. State, Tex.Cr. App., 511 S.W.2d 269; Beaupre v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 526 S.W.2d 811. Appellant's ground of error one is overruled.
In his second ground of error, appellant contends that the trial court erred in failing to suppress the identification of appellant by witness Andrews because such evidence was obtained as the result of an illegal arrest. Appellant bases his contention that the arrest was illegal on the following testimony by Officer V. T. Sommers elicited at the punishment stage of the trial:
Contrary to appellant's contention that this testimony reflects no probable cause for the appellant's arrest, we view Officer Sommers' testimony as merely reflecting that he did not have personal knowledge of any probable cause. We cannot conclude that this testimony affirmatively demonstrates that there was no probable cause for appellant's arrest.
Even if we assume the arrest was illegal, we still conclude no error is shown. Betty Andrews testified unequivocally that her identification was a result of having seen the appellant over a period of several minutes at the time of the offense. Witness Andrews related that the lineup did not aid her in-court identification in any way and stated, "I remember his face. I'll never forget it." In the case of Johnson v. State, 496 S.W.2d 72, this Court was presented with an analogous situation and held:
Similarly, in the instant case, the identification of the appellant by Betty Andrews would have been obtained by means sufficiently distinguishable from the illegal arrest to be purged of the primary taint. Johnson v. State, supra; Lujan v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 428 S.W.2d 336; cf. Writt v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 541 S.W.2d 424. Appellant's contention is overruled.
In his ground of error three, appellant contends that the trial court erred in allowing the State to bolster Betty Andrews' in-court identification by showing her prior lineup identification of appellant. After witness Andrews identified appellant at trial, the State was allowed to elicit testimony that she had identified the appellant at a prior lineup, over defense objection. In Lyons v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 388 S.W.2d 950, this Court held:
In the instant case, Betty Andrews was the only witness to testify concerning her pretrial identification of the appellant and, as such, her testimony was admissible. See Adams v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 514 S.W.2d 262; Jackson v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 507 S.W.2d 231; Smith v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 520 S.W.2d 383. Appellant's third ground of error is overruled.
In his ground of error four, appellant contends that the prosecution in the present case was in violation of a plea bargain agreement and that the imposition of a 20 year sentence was, in essence, a penalty for the exercise of his right to appeal in violation of due process principles as expressed in North Carolina v. Pearce, 395 U.S. 711, 89 S.Ct. 2072, 23 L.Ed.2d 656 (1969). In order to clearly understand appellant's
On December 4, 1974, the appellant pled guilty in Trial Cause No. 74-10-02420 to the offense of robbery and received a 10 year probated sentence. Subsequently, the appellant was indicted for forgery, Trial Cause No. 3201, and for the present aggravated robbery case. It was agreed by the State and the appellant that, in exchange for the appellant's plea of guilty to the forgery case and his plea of true to a revocation of the robbery probation, the State would recommend a 10 year sentence in each case and hold the present aggravated robbery case in abeyance pending the appellant's filing a frivolous appeal brief with this Court in each case.
On appeal, we take judicial notice that the appeals were abated for re-briefing in light of this Court's decision on original submission in Jones v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 545 S.W.2d 771. See Cranfil v. State, Tex. Cr.App., 525 S.W.2d 518. On original submission in Jones, we held that a forgery indictment identical to the one in Trial Cause No. 3201 was fundamentally defective. After abatement, the trial court granted new trials in both the forgery case, No. 3201, and the revocation of probation, No. 74-10-02420. Subsequently, this Court granted the State's motion for rehearing in Jones and held that the forgery indictment was not fundamentally defective absent a motion to quash.
Appellant contends that his filing of frivolous appeal briefs performed his entire contract. This is true as to his performance of acts or omissions imposed on him personally by the agreement; but an affirmance of the cases was required as a condition precedent to any contractual duty of the State to dismiss the present aggravated robbery case. Since the condition did not occur, the State had the right to proceed on said case absent some new agreement otherwise. Since appellant has never before been tried or sentenced for the instant offense, North Carolina v. Pearce, supra, does not apply.
In his ground of error five, appellant contends that the trial court erred in denying his motion for instructed verdict. Appellant argues that if we exclude the identification by Betty Andrews as alleged in his first two grounds, there would be no evidence connecting the appellant to the aggravated robbery. Initially, we note that the trial court is presumed to have had good cause in overruling a motion for instructed
In his sixth ground of error, the appellant complains that the trial court erred in overruling his objection to the prosecutor's improper jury argument. During trial, the appellant's only witness was Gregg Johanson, the customer at the store at the time of the robbery. Johanson testified that he could not positively identify the appellant as the man who entered the store with the flashlight. He stated that, while he did not have sufficient opportunity to observe the man, his impression was that the man was shorter than the appellant. In this regard, the appellant made the following argument:
The appellant now complains of the following argument by the prosecutor:
The prosecutor's argument was based on a reasonable deduction from the evidence. Pesch v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 524 S.W.2d 299; Parish v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 523 S.W.2d 665; Kennedy v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 520 S.W.2d 776; Hunt v. State, Tex.Cr. App., 511 S.W.2d 954; Alejandro v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 493 S.W.2d 230. Further, the prosecutor's argument was in response to that argument made by appellant's counsel. Lapp v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 519 S.W.2d 443; Chappell v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 519 S.W.2d 453; Collins v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 548 S.W.2d 368. Appellant's contention is overruled.
In his seventh ground of error, appellant complains of the following jury arguments by the prosecutor:
With regard to appellant's first two objections, we note that appellant's counsel made the following argument prior to those arguments made by the prosecutor:
It is apparent from this argument that appellant first injected the subject of whether the testimony of one witness was sufficient to justify a conviction and why the State only relied upon one witness. We find the complained of arguments were in response to the argument of opposing counsel. Alejandro v. State, supra; Mays v. State, 563 S.W.2d 260 (delivered March 22, 1978).
With regard to appellant's third complained of argument, it is not proper for counsel to inject personal opinions into argument lest they convey to the jury the idea that they have bases for their conclusions in addition to the evidence before the jury. Fowler v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 500 S.W.2d 643. However, counsel may draw reasonable deductions "from the evidence" and, in the instant case, the prosecutor's remark concerning his experience represented permissible adversary comment. Shipp v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 482 S.W.2d 870. In any event, the trial court sustained the appellant's objection and the instruction to disregard cured the error, if any. Stiggers v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 506 S.W.2d 609; Willis v. State, Tex.Cr.App., 518 S.W.2d 247. Appellant's seventh contention is overruled.
In his final ground of error, the appellant argues that the trial court erred in considering inadmissible evidence when ruling on the appellant's motion to suppress. After Betty Andrews testified at the suppression hearing concerning her identification of the appellant at the line-up on January 30 at 1:40 p. m., the State introduced the complaint dated January 31, filed at 11:09 a. m. At that time, the following exchange occurred:
At the time of this complained of argument, there was evidence before the court concerning the time of the lineup and the time of the filing of the formal complaint. Consequently, the prosecutor's argument was a reasonable deduction from the evidence before the court. Pesch v. State, supra; Parish v. State, supra. Appellant's final ground of error is overruled.
The judgment is affirmed.
"The magistrate shall inform in clear language the person arrested of the accusation against him and of any affidavit filed therewith,..."