CHOY, Circuit Judge:
James Lemon appeals his conviction on two counts of bank robbery, 18 U.S.C. § 2113(a). He argues for reversal on the grounds that: (1) the court gave jury insanity instructions contrary to the standard established in Wade v. United States, 426 F.2d 64 (9th Cir. 1970) (en banc); (2) the court failed to abide by a provision of the Speedy Trial Act, 18 U.S.C. § 3164; (3) his Miranda rights were violated; (4) his custodial consent to a search of his hotel room was both involuntary and elicited in violation of Miranda; and (5) his court-appointed counsel did not provide the reasonably effective assistance of counsel required by the sixth amendment and the Criminal Justice Act, 18 U.S.C. § 3006A. We affirm.
FACTS AND PROCEEDINGS BELOW
This action concerns two San Diego, California bank robberies which occurred on July 22 and July 25, 1975. On July 26, 1975, the San Diego Police received an anonymous telephone tip that the man depicted in published bank surveillance photos was a local gambler, Fred Forens. Acting on the call, two officers, armed with the photos, checked the areas reportedly frequented by Forens. Upon entering a local bar, the officers observed appellant, checked his identification, and asked him to step outside, where he was compared with the photos. Appellant denied he was the person shown. At that point, the officers placed him under arrest, conducted a pat-down search, and handcuffed him. During the pat-down, a key to the Knickerbocker Hotel was found, and the officers proceeded there with appellant. Upon obtaining his consent, the officers searched appellant's hotel room and found marked bills from the robbed banks as well as a shirt similar to that worn by the robber. Appellant was then taken to the police station where, for the first time, he was given his rights under Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436, 86 S.Ct. 1602, 16 L.Ed.2d 694 (1966), and questioned further.
On August 6, 1975, a federal grand jury returned a three-count indictment charging appellant with two counts of bank robbery, and one count of armed robbery (later dismissed). 18 U.S.C. § 2113(a) & (d). On September 15, 1975, a hearing was held on appellant's pre-trial motion to suppress tangible evidence and statements. Appellant's trial was set for October 21, 1975. On that date, appellant's jury trial was trailed to October 23 because of two other jury trials scheduled for October 21. On October 23, appellant requested that his case be continued to November 3, 1975, when he said he would enter a plea of guilty. On that date, appellant's counsel advised the court that the case would not be disposed of, notified the government that a defense of insanity would be interposed, and asked for a future court appearance to set a trial date in order to allow the government an opportunity to obtain an expert witness. On November 17, 1975, the government requested that an out-of-town psychiatrist be permitted to examine appellant. The court granted the request and set the trial for the earliest date thereafter available, January 13, 1976.
On January 14, 1976, appellant moved to dismiss for denial of speedy trial. The motion was denied on January 20, and trial commenced on the two counts of bank robbery. Appellant was convicted of both counts on January 23, and this appeal ensued.
JURY INSANITY INSTRUCTIONS
In Wade v. United States, 426 F.2d 64 (9th Cir. 1970) (en banc), this court approved the following jury instruction on insanity:
Id. at 71-72. This instruction is the first part of a two-part standard developed by the American Law Institute (A.L.I.) and is still the standard in this circuit. United States v. Sullivan, 544 F.2d 1052 (9th Cir. 1976). The second part of the A.L.I. standard reads:
426 F.2d at 71. This latter portion was rejected by this court in Wade, id. at 72-73, but was included in the jury instructions given by the trial judge in the instant case at the urging of appellant's counsel. Appellant now contends that its inclusion rendered the instruction so misleading as to deny the jury the proper standard of assessment. We do not agree.
The instruction containing the second part of the A.L.I. standard could only have harmed appellant's case had he attempted to establish his insanity with evidence of "repeated criminal or otherwise antisocial conduct." Appellant's insanity defense, however, was based on toxic psychosis, a form of black-out which he claimed resulted from his depression-induced ingestion of large amounts of alcohol and drugs in the days before the robberies.
SPEEDY TRIAL ACT
The Speedy Trial Act requires that a person who is continuously "held in detention solely because [he is] awaiting trial" have his "conditions of release" reviewed by the court if, "through no fault of the accused or his counsel," trial does not commence within 90 days. 18 U.S.C. § 3164. When a defendant is detained for a study of his mental competency, he is not in detention "solely" for the purpose of awaiting trial under § 3164(a)(1). Moore v. United States, 525 F.2d 328, 329 (9th Cir. 1975); United States v. Bigelow, 544 F.2d 904, 907 (6th Cir. 1976). Likewise, when a continuance is granted at the request of the defense, such a delay is the "fault of the accused or his counsel" under § 3164(c) and excludable as such from the calculation of the 90-day period. Bigelow, supra; United States v. Martinez, 538 F.2d 921, 923-24 (2d Cir. 1976); United States v. Tirasso, 532 F.2d 1298, 1299 (9th Cir. 1976) (dictum).
Appellant was arrested on July 26, 1975. Because § 3164 did not become effective
Moreover, even if § 3164 were violated, the proper remedy under the Act would have been "review by the court of the conditions of release," § 3164(c), not the reversal which appellant here demands. See United States v. Carpenter, 542 F.2d 1132, 1134 (9th Cir. 1976); United States v. Simmons, 536 F.2d 827, 835-36 n.44 (9th Cir. 1976); United States v. Tirasso, supra. And appellant does not allege that his continued detention in any way prejudiced him or his defense under the sixth amendment test of Barker v. Wingo, 407 U.S. 514, 530, 92 S.Ct. 2182, 33 L.Ed.2d 101 (1972).
Appellant next contends that the statements he made to the police in response to their questions while he was in custody, but before he was given Miranda warnings, were improperly admitted at trial.
Appellant clearly was in custody from the time he was placed under arrest, and any questioning thereafter violated Miranda. It is, however, unclear from the record which questions were in fact asked after appellant was arrested "or otherwise deprived of his freedom in any significant way." But we have no occasion here to determine precisely when appellant was questioned or placed in custody, for we do not believe that any of the statements made by him contributed in any way to his conviction and thus hold that their admission, even if in violation of Miranda, was harmless error beyond a reasonable doubt.
CONSENT TO SEARCH
After his arrest, appellant was taken to his hotel and was there asked if his room could be searched. He now contends that his consent to the search was not voluntary.
It is established that a person in custody can give voluntary consent to a search. United States v. Watson, 423 U.S. 411, 424-25, 96 S.Ct. 820, 46 L.Ed.2d 598 (1976); United States v. Tolias, 548 F.2d 277, 278 (9th Cir. 1977); United States v. Rothman, 492 F.2d 1260, 1265 (9th Cir. 1973); United States v. Page, 302 F.2d 81, 83 (9th Cir. 1962) (en banc). "[W]hether a
Appellant also contends that his consent to the search of his hotel room, even if voluntary, was a statement obtained in violation of Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436, 86 S.Ct. 1602, 16 L.Ed.2d 694 (1966), and the evidence obtained as a result of the search were "fruits" of the illegally obtained statement and hence inadmissible under Wong Sun v. United States, 371 U.S. 471, 484-86, 83 S.Ct. 407, 9 L.Ed.2d 441 (1963).
A consent to a search is not the type of incriminating statement toward which the fifth amendment is directed. It is not in itself "evidence of a testimonial or communicative nature" under Schmerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757, 761-64, 86 S.Ct. 1826, 1830, 16 L.Ed.2d 908 (1966). Tremayne v. Nelson, 537 F.2d 359, 360 (9th Cir. 1976); United States v. Faruolo, 506 F.2d 490, 495 (2d Cir. 1974). See also Fisher v. United States, 425 U.S. 391, 408-14, 96 S.Ct. 1569, 48 L.Ed.2d 39 (1976). Hence, because there was no questioning implicating appellant's fifth amendment rights, and therefore no violation of Miranda, in the elicitation of the consent, we need not decide whether the "fruits" doctrine of Wong Sun applies to Miranda violations.
Moreover, even if Miranda be construed to apply to such a statement, we
EFFECTIVE ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL
Finally, appellant maintains that he was denied reasonably effective assistance of counsel due to the failure of his trial counsel to effectively argue against the introduction into evidence of the statements taken in violation of Miranda, to request the proper insanity instruction, to object to the improper instruction that was given, and to properly seek appellant's release under the Speedy Trial Act. Appellant further contends that his trial counsel failed to adequately prepare the defense psychiatrist before trial.
This court, in de Kaplany v. Enomoto, 540 F.2d 975, 987 (9th Cir. 1976) (en banc) identified three alternate standards by which to review the performance of counsel: (1) whether counsel's performance was "so poor and incompetent as to make the trial a farce or mockery of justice"; (2) "whether the circumstances show a denial of fundamental fairness"; and (3) whether there was a "lack of effective aid in the preparation and trial of the case—lack of counsel likely to render and rendering reasonably effective assistance." None was violated here.
Appellant's trial counsel properly preserved an objection to the use of the statements elicited in violation of Miranda at the pretrial suppression hearing. Generally, following the overruling of a pretrial motion to suppress, it is unnecessary to again object when the evidence is offered at trial. Lawn v. United States, 355 U.S. 339, 353, 78 S.Ct. 311, 2 L.Ed. 321 (1958). Moreover, we have found that the admission of the statements into evidence clearly was harmless error.
We have also found that the insanity instruction was not misleading, and that appellant had no right to be released under the Speedy Trial Act. Even assuming that counsel's preparation of the defense psychiatrist was in some manner deficient, that fact—taken alone or in conjunction with the other alleged errors—would not convince us that appellant was denied effective assistance of counsel. See United States v. Martin, 489 F.2d 674, 677-78 (9th Cir. 1973), cert. denied, 417 U.S. 948, 94 S.Ct. 3073, 41 L.Ed.2d 668 (1974).