GEE, Circuit Judge:
Plaintiff's complaint seeks legal and equitable relief against the impending (since consummated) termination of plaintiff from his employment as Training Coordinator for the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada, Local No. 198 Education Trust (hereinafter "the Trust"). This termination was allegedly in retaliation for plaintiff's support of an unsuccessful candidate for the office of Business Manager of the local union, an office won by defendant Pearson Holden. The named defendants are the Trust, the local union, four union members (three of whom serve as trustees by virtue of their election by the local union membership), and one management-appointed trustee who allegedly succumbed to pressure to vote in favor of discharging the plaintiff. The complaint asserts that the union's improper use of influence against the Trust and the trustees' reaction to that influence represented a violation of 29 U.S.C. §§ 158(a)(1), 158(a)(3), 158(b)(1)(A), and 158(b)(2) (1970) (the National Labor Relations Act claims). The same conduct is characterized as violative of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, 29 U.S.C. §§ 411(a)(1), 411(a)(2), and 411(a)(5) (1970) (the Title I, LMRDA, or Landrum-Griffin Act claims). The district court held a hearing on plaintiff's request for a preliminary injunction. After considering argument and testimony of Pearson Holden further clarifying the relationship between the Trust and the local union, the district court dismissed the complaint for lack of jurisdiction.
At argument, plaintiff properly conceded that the district court lacked jurisdiction to hear any claim arising under the National Labor Relations Act; such claims must be pursued through the National Labor Relations Board. Plaintiff also conceded that the LMRDA does not create a cause of action against an employer or confer federal jurisdiction to hear such a claim.
Turning to the issue of jurisdiction over the union, the parties have articulated the question for decision in terms of whether the complaint alleges union action within the "otherwise disciplined" phrase in 29 U.S.C. § 411(a)(5)
This construction of the statute is implicit in Seeley v. Brotherhood of Painters, 308 F.2d 52 (5th Cir.1962), where we affirmed the dismissal of § 411(a)(5) and § 529 claims. We stated that the punishment suffered by a union member "must have some relation to the plaintiff's membership in the labor organization" in order to constitute "discipline" under either section. Id. at 59-60. Our opinion today merely clarifies the requisite relation. In particular, it demonstrates that a discharge from employment represents discipline only when the member's employment status is a function of some internal union status, such as a hiring hall or, conversely, a union blacklist.
Evaluated with this understanding of the statute, the complaint obviously fails to state a claim under § 411(a)(5) or § 529.
Some circuits, recognizing the distinct purposes behind the substantive protections of § 529 and the procedural protections of § 411(a)(5), have held that the former section employs a broader concept of "discipline" than does the latter section. E. g., Grand Lodge of Int. Ass'n of Machinists v. King, 335 F.2d 340 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 379 U.S. 920, 85 S.Ct. 274, 13 L.Ed.2d 334 (1964). Our conclusion that this complaint fails to allege "discipline" within the scope of either statute renders it unnecessary to consider the possibility that § 411(a)(5) employs the phrase in a more restrictive sense. But see Wood v. Dennis, 489 F.2d 849, 857-58 (7th Cir.1973) (en banc) (Stevens, J., concurring), cert. denied, 415 U.S. 960, 94 S.Ct. 1490, 39 L.Ed.2d 575 (1974).
However, our conclusion on the issue framed by the parties does not exhaust our inquiry. The district court had jurisdiction under 29 U.S.C. § 412 to hear the claims arising under 29 U.S.C. §§ 411(a)(1) and (a)(2). Section 412 is the basic enforcement provision of the labor union member's "bill of rights" in Title I of the LMRDA; it provides a private remedy for violations of Title I and concomitant federal jurisdiction.
This result is compatible with Seeley, supra, which did not address the distinction between the scope of § 412 and that of § 529. Nor does it conflict with this circuit's previous remarks that the substantive protection of Title I deals only with "union-member" cases rather than "union-employee" and "union-officer" ones. See Sewell v. Grand Lodge of Int. Ass'n of Machinists, 445 F.2d 545, 550-51 n. 21 (5th Cir.1971), cert. denied, 404 U.S. 1024, 92 S.Ct. 674, 30 L.Ed.2d 674 (1972); Fulton Lodge No. 2 of Int. Ass'n of Machinists v. Nix, 415 F.2d 212, 217 (5th Cir.1969), cert. denied, 406 U.S. 946, 92 S.Ct. 2044, 32 L.Ed.2d 332 (1972); Nelms v. United Ass'n of Journeymen and Apprentices of Plumbing, 405 F.2d 715, 717 (5th Cir.1968). With the exception of Sewell, neither these cases nor the cases from other courts which they have cited for this proposition involved a substantive claim of infringement of equal rights or free speech. In fact, they fall into two categories: (1) claims for procedural protection, where the very definition of the right in § 411(a)(5) is limited to situations in which "discipline" occurs; and (2) claims in which the employment discharge or officer removal is not alleged to be in retaliation for the exercise of specifically protected statutory rights. The result in Sewell rests on a union's right to deal with insubordination rather than on statutory interpretation. See 445 F.2d at 550-52. Sewell or Wambles v. Int. Brotherhood of Teamsters, 488 F.2d 888 (5th Cir. 1974), which rejected any requirement of "cause" for discharge from appointed union office, may eventually be controlling by analogy, but the current state of the record simply does not permit further exploration of these issues. See Wood v. Dennis, supra, 489 F.2d at 856 (majority opinion). However, we caution against an overly broad reading of those cases which, in explicit terms, are confined to their facts.
Our conclusion that two of plaintiff's claims must be entertained by the district court intimates no view either on the merits of the claims or on the possibility that pretrial disposition by summary judgment may be appropriate at a later time. We likewise intimate no view on the question of whether plaintiff has adequately exhausted his union administrative remedies.
The decision that the district court had jurisdiction because the complaint asserts violations of rights guaranteed under the LMRDA also means that the case is not subject to preemption by the National Labor Relations Board. E. g., Fulton Lodge No. 2 of Int. Ass'n of Machinists v. Nix, supra, 415 F.2d at 215-16.
Although we thus disagree with the other circuits which have drawn variant forms of union retaliation within the rubric of § 529, we agree with the jurisdictional result in
AFFIRMED in part; REVERSED in part.
In the legislative development of the LMRDA, the model for this provision first appeared in the Senate in combination with the "bill of rights." There was no comparable section in the original Senate bill, which did not specify any individual membership rights. Compare 1 Leg. Hist. 338 with 1 Leg. Hist. 516, 521.