This is an out-of-time appeal,
The application for a writ of habeas corpus, filed here on August 28, 1975, was based on the contention that the trial
The plea of double jeopardy may be raised at any time. C.Cr.P. 594. Since the plea of double jeopardy was not raised befor or during the trial, it is properly before us on the denial of the application for a writ of habeas corpus.
The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees that no person shall be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb for the same offense. This guarantee is applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment. Benton v. Maryland, 395 U.S. 784, 89 S.Ct. 2056, 23 L.Ed.2d 707 (1969).
Article 1, § 9 of the 1921 Louisiana Constitution, and its counterpart in the 1974 Constitution, Article 1, § 15, provide that no defendant may be twice placed in jeopardy for the same offense. Article 591 of the Code of Criminal Procedure restates this guarantee. C.Cr.P. 596 sets forth the requisites for double jeopardy:
Louisiana applies the "same evidence" test in determining if a second trial constitutes double jeopardy. City of Baton Rouge v. Jackson, 310 So.2d 596 (La.1975). Briefly, this test holds that offenses are the same if the elements required to support a conviction upon one of the offenses would have been sufficient to warrant a conviction upon another of them. Stated differently, where the gravamen of the second offense is essentially included within the offense for which first tried, the second prosecution is barred because of former jeopardy. State ex rel. Wikberg v. Henderson, 292 So.2d 505 (La.1974).
In the instant case, the defendant confronted Shirley Ann White, his "common law" wife, in a T G & Y Store in Winnsboro. He allegedly pulled a gun in the store, pointed it at Shirley's head, dragged her into his car and drove away with her. Several persons who were in the parking lot of the store and witnessed the incident panicked at the sight of the gun pointed to her head.
On June 25, 1973 the defendant was tried and convicted in municipal court for the town of Winnsboro for aggravated assault, displaying a dangerous weapon in a place of business and disturbing the peace. On April 8, 1974 he was tried and convicted in district court for simple kidnapping.
In Waller v. Florida, 397 U.S. 387, 90 S.Ct. 1184, 25 L.Ed.2d 435 (1970), Waller and others removed a canvas mural from the St. Petersburg City Hall. They carried it through the streets, until confronted
Louisiana recognized the import of Waller v. Florida, supra, amending C.Cr.P. 597 to delete the provision that double jeopardy does not apply if the prior prosecution was under a municipal or parochial ordinance.
In State v. Didier, 262 La. 364, 263 So.2d 322 (1972), defendant, already convicted of malfeasance in office, was prosecuted for theft and simple robbery. The basis of the malfeasance charge was that the defendant, a sheriff, knew of a theft and did nothing to prevent it or apprehend those involved. Subsequently, he himself was charged with theft and robbery, because he was a principal in the theft scheme. In upholding a dismissal of the theft and robbery prosecution because they constituted double jeopardy, this court stated:
Furthermore, State v. Didier, supra, recognized that the Waller holding is applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment:
In the instant case, the trial judge denied the application for a writ of habeas corpus without an evidentiary hearing, stating that the trial in municipal court for assault, displaying a dangerous weapon and disturbing the peace had nothing to do with the district court trial for kidnapping, and that the evidence, issues and testimony
Simple kidnapping is the intentional and forcible seizing and carrying of any person from one place to another without his consent. R.S. 14:45A(1). The assault may have been the essential element of the kidnapping; without the record before us, we cannot say. If it was, then the same evidence that supported a conviction in the second trial would have supported a conviction in the first. Therefore, to determine whether the defendant is being twice punished for the same conduct, we remand the case to the district court for an evidentiary hearing on the defendant's application for a writ of habeas corpus.
Accordingly, the conviction and sentence are affirmed on the appeal, but the case is remanded to the district court for an evidentiary hearing, consistent with this opinion, on the defendant's application for a writ of habeas corpus. If defendant is unable to employ counsel, the trial court should appoint counsel for defendant.
SANDERS, C. J., dissents and assigns written reasons.
BOLIN and MARCUS, JJ., dissent.
SANDERS, Chief Justice (dissenting).
Simon Smith, Jr. was convicted in municipal court of aggravated assault, displaying a dangerous weapon in a place of business, and disturbing the peace.
The question presented is whether these convictions, as a matter of double jeopardy, bar his subsequent prosecution for simple kidnapping.
The test is whether the gravamen of the simple kidnapping charge is essentially included in the first offenses, assault, displaying a dangerous weapon, and disturbing the peace. City of Baton Rouge v. Jackson, La., 310 So.2d 596 (1975); State v. Pettle, La., 286 So.2d 625 (1973); 35 La.L.Rev. 505. I think not.
Simple kidnapping is the intentional and forcible seizing and carrying of any person from one place to another without his consent. LSA-R.S. 14:45 A(1). The gravamen of the offense is the seizure and asportation of a person. This gravamen is not essentially included in any of the three minor offenses of which defendant was convicted. Factual connexity of the offenses actually makes no difference. See City of Baton Rouge v. Jackson, supra; State v. Pettle, supra.
For the reasons assigned, I respectfully dissent.