MULLIGAN, Circuit Judge:
This is an appeal by Americo Michel from an order of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, Hon. Jacob Mishler, Ch. J., entered on July 29, 1974, denying his
On February 20, 1973, Michel pleaded guilty to count two of a three-count drug indictment. Count two charged Michel with knowingly and intentionally distributing approximately 121.4 grams of cocaine in violation of 21 U.S.C. § 841(a) (1), and aiding and abetting the same in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2. The two other counts were dismissed on June 1, 1973 when he was sentenced to 5 years imprisonment and 5 years special parole, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. § 841(b)(1)(A). On April 23, 1974, Michel filed his present motion to vacate his sentence and withdraw his plea of guilty. He maintained below and here that his plea was not voluntary under Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure because he did not understand the meaning of the special parole term which was imposed, and further he did not understand that, as a resident alien, he was subject to deportation under 8 U.S.C. § 1251(a) (11) if convicted of a violation of the narcotics laws.
The court below held that the imposition of special parole is a direct consequence of a guilty plea and is therefore within the mandate of Rule 11. In Bye v. United States, 435 F.2d 177, 181 (2d Cir. 1970), this court held that, where a defendant's violation of the drug laws renders him ineligible for parole, the Government must bear the burden of proving that his guilty plea was entered voluntarily and with an understanding of the consequences of the plea. Since special parole adds time to a regular sentence,
435 F.2d at 180. We believe that the special parole here imposed is comparable and that the defendant not only should be advised that it will be imposed, but also should be asked by the court if he understands that fact. That is precisely what happened here. On February 20, 1973, Chief Judge Mishler meticulously observed the letter and spirit of Rule 11. The colloquy between the court and the defendant was not an empty ritual and Michel was not a monosyllabic participant. For example, when he indicated that he did not know the maximum prison term, he was advised by the court to consult with his counsel. After he had, the court again asked him if he then understood and Michel answered affirmatively. The court also stated:
In light of this exchange, we cannot expect the court to have gone further to ask any more questions. Michel was voluble both at the time of his plea and at the time of his sentencing. He was represented by counsel who
After an extended colloquy in which Michel was given the opportunity to withdraw his plea by the court, Michel pleaded guilty and was sentenced for a term of five years. The court stated: "In addition thereto, I impose a special parole term of five years."
In light of these circumstances, we conclude that there was compliance with Rule 11.
This court in United States v. Parrino, 212 F.2d 919 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 348 U.S. 840, 75 S.Ct. 46, 99 L.Ed. 663 (1954) long ago held that even where a defendant has been erroneously advised by counsel that his plea would not result in deportation, no "manifest injustice" within Fed.R.Crim.P. 32(d) would occur in the denial of a motion to withdraw a plea of guilty. The court held that deportation was not a direct but rather a collateral consequence of the plea. In
We hold that Rule 11 does not affect the long-standing rule in this as well as other circuits that the trial judge when accepting a plea of guilty is not bound to inquire whether a defendant is aware of the collateral effects of his plea.
Our reading of Rule 11 cases confirms the view we have taken. In Bye v. United States, supra, this court, as we have noted, while holding that ineligibility for parole "affects the length of time an accused will have to serve in prison," 435 F.2d at 180, reaffirmed the principle
In United States v. Sambro, 147 U.S. App.D.C. 75, 454 F.2d 918 (1971) (per curiam), motion for rehearing en banc denied per curiam, 454 F.2d 924 (1971), the defendant had pleaded guilty to a narcotics charge without knowing or having been advised that his plea would result in his deportation; in fact, his counsel believed that deportation could be suspended by the court. He learned that deportation would result, however, before he was sentenced and claimed that he had not been properly advised of this consequence of his plea.
Appellant claims that, since deportation under the statute is automatic for the convicted drug offender, the consequence is direct and not collateral. The Government urges that this is not so, since a separate administrative civil proceeding must be commenced, and that application for "non-priority status" because of humanitarian factors might result in indefinite suspension of deportation. See 8 U.S.C. § 1254(a)(2). We do not think that the distinction between a direct and a collateral consequence depends upon the degree of certainty with which the sanction will be visited upon the defendant. We do not agree that it is realistic that the trial judge should be under the obligation not only to draw up a complete list of possible consequences, but then in addition to determine the degree of probability of their happening. As we have indicated, he must assure himself only that the punishment that he is meting out is understood. The defendant has pleaded guilty to a crime for which the statute provides sanctions. This punishment properly circumscribes the judge's responsibility under Rule 11. To require that he anticipate the multifarious peripheral contingencies which may affect the defendant's civil liabilities, his eligibility for a variety of societal benefits, his civil rights or his right to remain in this country, all of which might give rise to later claims that the plea was not voluntary in the absence of an informed consent, has not been required in our jurisprudence, constitutionally or otherwise. Defense counsel is in a much better position to ascertain the personal circumstances of his client so as to determine what indirect consequences the guilty plea may trigger. Rule 11, in our view, was not intended to relieve counsel of his responsibilities to his client.