ORTH, J., delivered the opinion of the Court.
LAWRENCE GENTRY DEAN was tried before a jury in the Circuit Court for Prince George's County on charges arising from an incident on the campus of the University of Maryland on 14 May 1970. He was found
"A forcible entry * * * is an entry on real property peaceably in the possession of another, against his will, without authority of law, by actual force, or with such an array of force and apparent intent to employ it for the purpose of overcoming resistance that the occupant in yielding and permitting possession to be taken from him must be regarded as acting from a well-founded apprehension that his resistance would be perilous or unavailing." 35 Am.Jur.2d, § 1, p. 891.
Maryland has long recognized that proceedings in cases of forcible entry form a part of our criminal jurisprudence. Isaac v. Clarke, 9 G. & J. 107, 114 (1837). The offense was included in our inheritance of the English common law and statutes. Art. 5, Declaration of Rights, Constitution of Maryland. See State v. Magliano, 7 Md.App. 286, 292-294. Blackstone, listing it in his Commentaries in "Book the Fourth — Of Public Wrongs" at 148 as an "offense against the public peace" described it as "committed by violently taking or keeping possession of lands and tenements, with menaces, force, and arms, and without authority of law." He gave an apercu of its history:
All forcible entries were punishable with imprisonment and ransom at the king's will by 5 Rich.II, st.1, c 8, enacted at Westminster in 1381. It provided that "none from thenceforth shall make an entry into any lands and tenements but in cases where entry is given by law; and in such cases not with strong hand nor with multitude of people, but only in peaceable and easy manner, and if any man from henceforth shall do to the contrary, and thereof be duly convicted, he shall be punished by imprisonment of his body."
The misdemeanor of forcible entry requires an actual entry upon land or tenements as contrasted with an attempt to enter. It is the force with which the entry is made that distinguishes it from an ordinary trespass.
Dean claims that the indictment failed to charge the offense of forcible entry.
Rule 712 a provides: "An indictment shall contain a plain, concise and definite statement of the essential facts constituting the specific offense with which the defendant is charged. It need not contain any other matter not necessary to such statement, * * *. An unnecessary allegation may be disregarded as surplusage * * *." Count 1 of the indictment here presented that Dean "did unlawfully and forcibly enter into and upon the Administration Building of the University of Maryland then and there in possession of the Board of Regents of the University of Maryland and did thereupon occupy the said premises with and by such array of force as did cause
We said in Ward v. State, 9 Md.App. 583, 587-588:
We followed and applied the rule in Rosenberg v. State, 12 Md.App. 20, 24. We have no difficulty in determining that the count here challenged gave a plain, concise and definite statement of the essential facts constituting the common law offense of forcible entry as discussed supra. We find that count 1 properly charged forcible entry.
Dean also alleges that count 1 was lacking in specificity. We do not agree. It charged the offense and we do not think that it was fatally defective in failing to allege such other facts as would enable Dean to prepare his defense in the constitutional sense. Seidman v. State, 230 Md. 305. Dean complains that the indictment did not "state the hour of entry", whether or not "the building was closed", the "array of force used", what precise acts he did "to cause apprehension on the part of the agents of the Board of Regents", who the agents were, the source of their authority. Such of these points as may have been relevant and material were matters of
We hold that the lower court did not err in denying the motion to dismiss count 1 of the indictment.
The Sufficiency of the Evidence
There was evidence adduced from which the jury could properly find that about 8:00 p.m. on 14 May 1970 a group of persons gained entry to the Administration Building of the University of Maryland through the northwest entrance. The top of the door had been splintered and the door forced open. A college policeman requested the 10 or 15 people who had entered to leave and they did so. He tried to secure the door but he could not close it against the force of those attempting to gain entrance. About 40 or 50 persons entered the lobby. Reinforcements called by the policeman arrived and in about 20 minutes the lobby had been cleared. During that time, however, requests to leave were not immediately complied with. Persons milled around the lobby and several changed the lettering on the directory board to such slogans as "Power to the People", "Free Food for Dining Room Whores", and "Fuck Elkins". There were judicial identifications of Dean as one of those in the building changing the lettering on the directory board and that he kept on doing so when requested to leave. He and a companion put the sign in the center of the lobby and asked a lieutenant of the campus police department if he were going to destroy it.
We find that the evidence was sufficient in law to establish that the Administration Building of the University of Maryland was peaceably in the possession of the Board of Regents, that Dean entered thereon against the will of the possessors, without authority of law and by actual force. We point out that it was at least a rational inference that he was present at the time of entry and cooperating with others in making the forcible entry; this was enough to show his criminal agency. And since actual force was used, it seems that the apprehension of bodily hurt or that the peace would be breached in event of resistance was not an essential element. In any event, it is only required that the show of force be such as is likely to intimidate the possessor, not that he was actually put in fear, or such as is likely to result in a breach of the peace. We believe that the jury could have properly concluded on the evidence before it that one of these was the likely result. We note that it was no defense to the crime of forcible entry that Dean may have had the right to enter the building under normal circumstances; it is no defense that a defendant had the legal title to and have the right of immediate possession of the real estate in question. Perkins, supra, at 410. In the words of Perkins, ibid: "The social interest in the peace and quiet of the community requires that no peaceful possession of real estate should be disturbed by such violent means."
CODE, ART. 27, § 577B
Attacking his conviction of the statutory offense Dean asks us, as we were asked in Kirstel v. State, 13 Md.App. 482, to declare § 577B unconstitutional. He bases his request on two grounds: the statute is vague in violation of due process, and it is discriminatory in violation of equal protection.
Dean is entitled to a determination of the constitutionality only of those provisions of the statute under which he was convicted. He was not affected by other provisions of the statute, whether or not they are constitutional, as the Act has a severability clause. Acts 1969, ch. 627, § 2. We found in Kirstel that the statute has two aspects which we styled the "denial of access aspect" and the "criminal offenses aspect." Dean, as was Kirstel, was convicted of a misdemeanor created under the second aspect, namely that he refused or failed to leave the building or grounds of a public educational institution after being requested to do so by an authorized employee of the institution. We said in Kirstel that the employee must have standards to follow in making the request and we found that it was the legislative intent that the standards be that the person requested to leave had no lawful business to pursue at the institution or that he was acting in a manner disruptive or disturbing to the normal educational functions of the institution, the test being that it would so appear to a reasonable man.
In considering whether the Act was unconstitutionally vague in Kirstel we applied the general rule that "all that is required is that the language `conveys sufficiently definite warning as to the proscribed conduct when measured by common understanding and practices.'" United States v. Petrillo, 332 U.S. 1, 8. We said:
We adopt the conclusion we reached in Anderson, at 192:
Unlike Kirstel we also have before us in the instant case the "disruptive acts" standard. It too is reasonably compatible with a constitutional interpretation, that is that only non-constitutionally protected disruptive activities are prohibited. We accept that interpretation and shall apply the standard accordingly.
We do not believe that the provisions deny equal protection. Dean concedes that the buildings and grounds are public facilities subject to restriction of their use by the State in a reasonable and nondiscriminatory manner. Brown v. Louisiana, 383 U.S. 131, 143; Dunkel v. Elkins, 325 F.Supp. 1235, 1243 (U.S.D.C.D.Md. 1971). But he urges that § 577B discriminates "as between persons or groups of persons in the incidence of the law," citing Goesaert v. Cleary, 335 U.S. 464, 466. We see no classifications with respect to the provisions here pertinent. The criminal offenses aspect applies to all persons whether or not they are students, staff or faculty.
Dean claims that the 3rd count of the indictment failed to charge an offense and lacked specificity. It reads that Dean "* * * did unlawfully refuse and fail to leave and vacate the Administration Building of the University of Maryland after being requested to do so by authorized employees of the institution, contrary to the form of the Act of the Assembly in such cases made and provided * * *." We think that the count as drawn was so in the words of that part of Art. 27, § 577B here material as fully to meet the test as discussed in Baker v. State, 6 Md.App. 148, 155-157. We find that the 3rd count was as fully descriptive of the offense alleged as is the language of the statute.
We hold that the lower court did not err in denying the motion to dismiss count 3 of the indictment.
The Sufficiency of the Evidence
Dean gives as reasons why the evidence was insufficient that it did not show that he had no lawful business to pursue or that he was acting in a manner disruptive or disturbing to the normal educational functions of the institution, and that he refused to leave the building.
We think the jury could have properly found, at least by a rational inference from the evidence, that Dean had no lawful business to pursue in the Administration Building at the time he was there. Certainly we cannot say that breaking down doors of the Building to effect entrance, milling around the lobby, removing the directory board, placing it in the middle of the lobby and rearranging the lettering thereon to form the slogans as testified, were constitutionally protected activities. And it would seem that the jury could have fairly found that they were acts disruptive or disturbing to the normal educational functions of the institution. There was direct evidence that Dean refused to leave when requested
We hold that the lower court did not err in denying the motion for judgment of acquittal as to the 3rd count of the indictment.
Dean points out in the "Conclusion" section of his brief that he "was only one of many involved in the activity complained of by the State, yet he was singled out as part of a small group, by the University to be charged with these criminal violations." His conduct may be neither excused nor justified because others may have acted unlawfully. Nor did he obtain sanctuary because others were not apprehended, or prosecuted or punished. He was responsible for his conduct, found by a jury of his peers to have been unlawful. We have determined that the convictions were come by properly. He is fairly held accountable. See Drews v. State, 236 Md. 349.
Judgments affirmed; costs to be paid by appellant.