MR. JUSTICE STONE delivered the opinion of the Court.
Petitioner, a steamship transportation company, brought suit in the District Court for Southern New York, to recover from the Collector of Customs certain fines
Section 9 of the Immigration Act, as amended, provides that:
"it shall be unlawful for any person, including any transportation company, . . . to bring to the United States . . . from a foreign country . . . any alien afflicted with idiocy, insanity, imbecility, feeble-mindedness, epilepsy, constitutional psychopathic inferiority, chronic alcoholism, tuberculosis in any form, or a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease, and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Labor that any alien so brought to the United States was afflicted with any of the said diseases or disabilities at the time of foreign embarkation and that the existence of such disease or disability might have been detected by means of a competent medical examination at such time, such person or transportation company .. . shall pay to the collector of customs of the customs district in which the port of arrival is located the sum of
The same section also makes it unlawful
"to bring to any port of the United States any alien afflicted with any mental defect other than those above specifically named, or physical defect of a nature which may affect his ability to earn a living, as contemplated in § 3 of this Act, and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Labor that any alien so brought to the United States was so afflicted at the time of foreign embarkation, and that the existence of such mental or physical defect might have been detected by means of a competent medical examination at such time, such person shall pay to the collector of customs of the customs district in which the port of arrival is located the sum of $250, and, in addition a sum equal to that paid by such alien for his transportation. .. ."
Between the years 1923 and 1927 the petitioner brought to the United States in its vessels the thirteen aliens with respect to whose transportation the fines now in question were imposed. All were found, upon arrival, to be inadmissible because they were afflicted either with one of the diseases specified in § 9, or with a physical defect which might affect the alien's ability to earn a living. In each case in the proceedings before the Board of Special Inquiry to pass on the admissibility of the alien, the examining physicians of the Health Department certified to his diseased condition or disability on arrival, adding: "In our opinion the condition herein certified might have been detected by competent medical examination at the port of embarkation." In each instance the petitioner was notified of the certificate of the medical examiners, advised that such findings indicated its liability to fine
The "files" or "records" upon which the Secretary of Labor based his decisions that the fines should be imposed, consisted in general of the transcript of the hearing and examination before the Board of Special Inquiry at Ellis Island, in which the admissibility of the alien was passed upon, which included a reference to the medical certificate, the petitioner's letter of protest and any accompanying documents, and various communications of an inter-departmental character relating to the disposition of the alien by the Secretary.
At the trial in the District Court, the petitioner introduced evidence which had not been presented to the Department of Labor tending to show that a competent medical
The petitioner contends here, as it did before the courts below, that the evidence offered at the trial was erroneously excluded; that if § 9 is construed to preclude a judicial trial of the issues before the Secretary, it denies to petitioner due process of law and, finally, that in any case the fines were not validly imposed because the Secretary of Labor abused the discretion reposed in him by the statute.
The first two objections are untenable. By the words of the statute the Secretary's is the only voice authorized to express the will of the United States with respect to the imposition of the fines; the judgment of a court may not be substituted for the discretion which, under the statute, he alone may exercise. In conferring that authority upon an administrative officer, Congress did not transcend constitutional limitations. Under the Constitution and laws of the United States, control of the admission of aliens is committed exclusively to Congress and, in the exercise of that control it may lawfully impose appropriate obligations, sanction their enforcement by reasonable money penalties, and invest in administrative officials the power to impose and enforce them. Oceanic Navigation Co. v. Stranahan, 214 U.S. 320; Passavant v. United States, 148 U.S. 214; see Hampton & Co. v. United States, 276 U.S. 394, 406; Navigazione Libera Triestina v. United States, 36 F.2d 631; Zakonaite v. Wolf, 226 U.S. 272, 275.
As was pointed out in the Stranahan case, the statute imposing the fines must be regarded as an incident to the exercise by Congress of its plenary power to control the admission of aliens, and due process of law does not require that the courts, rather than administrative officers, be charged, in any case, with determining the facts upon which the imposition of such a fine depends. It follows that as the fines are not invalid, however imposed, because unreasonable or confiscatory in amount, which is conceded, Congress may choose the administrative rather than the judicial method of imposing them. Indeed, the Court rested its decision in Oceanic Navigation Co. v. Stranahan, supra, on the authority of cases arising under the revenue laws, authorizing the administrative imposition of civil penalties frequently much greater than those imposed here. Bartlett v. Kane, 16 How. 263, 274; Passavant v. United States, supra; Origet v. Hedden,. 155 U.S. 228; see Murray's Lessee v. Hoboken Land & Imp. Co., 18 How. 272.
The action of the Secretary is, nevertheless, subject to some judicial review, as the courts below held. The courts may determine whether his action is within his statutory authority, compare Gonzales v. Williams, 192 U.S. 1; Gegiow v. Uhl, 239 U.S. 3, whether there was any evidence before him to support his determination,
The statute plainly authorizes the imposition of the fine only if it shall appear, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that the existence of the disease or disability for which the alien was excluded, "might have been detected by means of a competent medical examination" at the time of sailing. That § 9 imposed upon the Secretary the official duty and responsibility of making such a determination was held by both courts below and is not questioned by the Government. Accordingly, his action in particular cases is subject to judicial review, within the limits mentioned. Whether, as was suggested in the Stranahan case, supra, 332, 342. Congress, while adhering to the statutory declaration that the fine is incurred only when the alien's disease or disability could have been detected by competent medical examination at the point of embarkation, might constitutionally provide that the certificate of the examining physician at the port of entry should be conclusive as to that fact, we need not determine. We think it clear, despite language in the Stranahan case intimating a different view, that the statute, as it has been consistently construed administratively,
Hence, we pass to the petitioner's remaining contention, that the action of the Secretary here in determining liability was arbitrary and unfair. In all of the cases before us the Secretary's decision was supported by at least one item of evidence. It was the certified opinion of the examining physicians of the Health Department, based upon a physical examination of the alien in the proceeding in which his admissibility was determined, that at an earlier date, that of embarkation, the existence of the disease with which he was afflicted upon arrival might have been detected by competent medical examination. This opinion as to the physical condition of the alien at the time and place of embarkation was not accompanied by a statement of the facts observed. Nevertheless, it was some evidence tending to establish the discoverability of the disease at the time of embarkation.
In all the cases but that of Fusco the evidence presented to the Secretary, in support of the petitioner's contention that the disease or disability could not have been discovered by competent medical examination at the point of embarkation, consisted of the general statement in the protests that it was the practice of the company to conduct such an examination and, in a few instances, that the alien had received a consular visa. Petitioner argues
As the protests were not rejected by the Secretary, the facts they disclosed were properly before him and were evidence which, in an administrative proceeding, must be considered and acted upon by the administrative officer. Vajtauer v. United States, supra; Tang Tun v. Edsell, supra. But we cannot say, on the records before us, that the Secretary did not consider them, as such, for what they were worth, regarding the official medical certificates as conflicting evidence entitled to greater weight. No ground exists, therefore, for setting aside his determination in these cases. The only question is the weight of the evidence, as to which the Secretary's conclusion is final. Compare Zakonaite v. Wolf, supra.
In the case of Fusco, affidavits were submitted along with the protest and the two together tended to show with some certainty that the alien had been subjected to three medical examinations shortly before embarkation, once by the Royal Italian Immigration Service in Naples, once by a physician there enjoying the confidence of the American Consul, whose certificate was available to the Secretary, and once by petitioner's own ship physician, all of whom found the immigrant in good health.
The letter imposing the fine in the Fusco case does not show definitely whether the Secretary considered the evidence submitted by petitioner. It recites in one place, "The alien gave no history of the disease. Indeed, he was not questioned with regard thereto, and the only evidence in the record is the official certificate itself," and in another, "It is believed that the evidence placed in the record by the company is not sufficient to call into question
The Act of Congress confers on the Secretary great power, but it is not wholly uncontrolled. It is a power which must be exercised fairly, to the end that he may consider all evidence relevant to the determination which he is required to make, that he may arrive justly at his conclusion, and preserve such record of his action that it may be known that he has performed the duty which the law commands. Suppression of evidence or its concealment from a party whose rights are being determined by the administrative tribunal, has been held to be so unfair
Petitioner makes contentions, with respect to several of the cases, which require special consideration. They embrace the cases of aliens with physical defects affecting their ability to earn a living, aliens who came to the United States with a transit visa for the purpose of passing through the United States to their ultimate destination, Canada, and the case of an alien who came to the United States to enroll as a member of the crew of a vessel to be taken back to Italy. All entered or sought to enter the United States, and all were afflicted with a disease or disability specified in the statute. That their admissibility could not be determined in advance of their reaching the United States, that they were not seeking to remain permanently within the United States, are immaterial in the face of the express language of the statute, which imposes the penalty for bringing them here. See Elting v. North German Lloyd, decided this day, ante, p. 324.
Crimi, who was blind, a disability which might affect his ability to earn a living, came to the United States as a student. He had a consular visa under § 4 (e) of the Act of 1924, c. 190, 43 Stat. 155, 8 U.S.C., § 204, which exempts from the quota students coming to the United States to attend an accredited school. To exempt the alien from the quota under § 4 (e), the school which he comes to attend must have been approved by the Department of Labor, and a list of such accredited schools is supplied to all American consuls. The alien was excluded because he did not come for the purpose of study at an accredited school. The petitioner insists that it was entitled, on the basis of the consular visa, to assume that the alien was admissible. But § 16 of the applicable Immigration
The judgment will be reversed as to the tenth cause of action and affirmed as to all the others.
Reversed in part.
During this time the general provisions of § 9 of the Act of 1903, 32 Stat. 1213, 1215, have been reenacted three times. § 9, Act of 1907, 34 Stat. 898, 901; § 9, Act of 1917, 39 Stat. 874, 880; § 26, Act of 1924, 43 Stat. 153, 166.