The evidence in the case establishes that before Eibel entered the field, continued high speeds in the wire of the Fourdrinier machine much beyond five hundred feet a minute resulted in defective paper. Eibel concluded that this was due to the disturbance and ripples in the stock as it was forming at a point between the breast roll and the first suction box, caused by the fact that at that point the wire was travelling much faster than the stock, and that if at that point the speed of the flowing stock could be increased approximately to the speed of the wire, the disturbance and rippling in the stock would cease and the defects would disappear from the paper product. Accordingly he proposed to add to the former speed of the stock by substantially tilting up the wire and giving the stock the added force of the down hill flow. He thought that as long as he could thus maintain equality of speed between stock and wire at the crucial point, and prevent the disturbance and rippling there, a further increase in the speed of the wire would not result in a defective product. He confirmed this by actual trial.
The first and most important question is whether this was a real discovery of merit. The Circuit Court of Appeals thought not. The prior art and the obvious application of the principle that water will run down hill in their opinion robbed it of novelty or discovery. The issue is one largely of evidence.
The plaintiff below introduced the patent and some evidence of infringement and a single expert to explain the discovery and invention and rested. Then the defendant brought in a mass of evidence to show prior discovery and use, to impeach the utility of plaintiff's alleged invention and to demonstrate the indefiniteness of specification and claims. The fact that the adjudication of the
A thorough examination of the whole voluminous record produces a satisfying conviction, first, that for years news print paper makers and manufacturers of paper-making machinery were engaged in seeking a method of increasing the speed of the news print machines, and that they had succeeded by improving the stock and by strengthening the parts in bringing the speed of the wire and the delivered paper up to between five and six hundred feet a minute, but that, when these high speeds were attained and maintained for any length of time, though they served to enable manufacturers to advertise such maximums, their continued and regular operation showed defects in the paper which were only overcome by a reduction of speed to something less than five hundred feet. As against advertisement, and the exuberant
What Eibel tried to do was to enable the paper maker to go to six or seven hundred feet and above in speed and retain a good product. Did he do it? Eibel was the superintendent of a paper mill at Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Before August, 1906, he raised the pitch of the wire from two or three inches to twelve inches and greatly increased the speed with a satisfactory product, and in that month he applied for a patent. The defendant's witnesses without exception refer to that disclosure as something that surprised and startled the paper-making trade. It spread, to use the expression of one witness, like wild fire. There were those who hesitated to take the venturesome step to give such an unheard-of pitch to the wire and waited until others assumed the risk, but the evidence is overwhelming that within a short interval of a year or two all of the fast machines were run with wires at a pitch of twelve inches and that this pitch has been increased to fifteen and eighteen and even twenty-four inches, that the speed of the machines with satisfactory product has increased to six hundred, six hundred and fifty, and even seven hundred feet, with plans now even for a thousand feet and that the makers of two-thirds of the print paper of the country are licensees of Eibel.
Defendant attempts to break the effect of this evidence by showing that five of the largest paper manufacturers who are licensees of Eibel are also shareholders in the Eibel Process Company, the plaintiff, and that they make 2200 tons of the 5000 tons of paper made daily in the United States. This circumstance seems to have had influence with the Circuit Court of Appeals. There are, however, ten other paper-making companies, not share-holders, who are licensees and use the Eibel pitch, and whose aggregate production is 1200 tons a day; and what is equally significant, thirteen other companies have contributed
The fact that the Eibel pitch has thus been generally adopted in the paper-making business and that the daily product in paper making has thus been increased at least twenty per cent. over that which had been achieved before Eibel is very weighty evidence to sustain the presumption from his patent that what he discovered and invented was new and useful. Of course, although very persuasive, it is not conclusive and may be explained. This brings us to the consideration of the evidence of the prior art and the contention of the defendant, and the conclusion of the court below, that the step taken by Eibel, so far as he took one, was a mere obvious application of fully developed devices in the prior art.
Eibel in his patent gives this measure of the prior art:
"The Fourdrinier wire has usually been arranged to move in a horizontal plane, although I am aware that means have been provided for adjusting the breast-roll end of the wire to different elevations, usually below the level, to provide for running with different grades of
It is important that the stock when it reaches the "Dandy" roll beyond the first suction box of the machine, shall be, on the one hand, free enough of water to be a formed sheet and take an impression from the Dandy roll, and on the other that it shall not be so dry that it will not retain the impression. Paper of such a heavy composition of fibre and water that it holds water long is said to be slow stock. Paper of lighter and thinner composition parting with water easily and drying quickly is called quick stock. Various means were adopted to give the stock the proper degree of dryness at the Dandy roll, usually by adjustment of the composition of the stock. What Eibel describes in this reference was another means. It was not widely used however. It was a slight depression or elevation in the wire at the breast roll so that slow stock could be made to run up hill from the flow box to the Dandy roll, lengthening the time of
This difference in purpose and degree of pitch between Eibel's device and the prior art is quite clearly shown by reference to a patent granted to Barrett and Horne, assignors to J.H. Horne & Sons, one of the important manufacturers of paper machinery of the country, in 1899. Their specifications showed a device capable of elevating the breast roll less than three inches and its sole purpose was for drainage. Their specifications say:
The Bayliss Austin machine, one of three chiefly relied on to show prior use, was made by the Horne Company and was designed by Barrett and Horne on the model of this patent. It is very clear from an examination of the design and contract for this machine that the pitch of the wire in it could not have exceeded three inches and that it was used for drainage. Other patents were set up in defense, some of them showing devices for raising the breast roll and wire above the level, and lowering them below the level for the purpose of drainage. The angle of elevation and depression was always small. There was constant straining by the witnesses for the defense to increase the elevation before Eibel. On the direct examination they began with a positive assertion that a pitch of four, five, and even six inches, had been used in certain machines before Eibel's time, but written records, contracts and specifications brought out on cross-examination show nothing more than three inches provided for purpose of drainage and not more than that was used. This is not to say that witnesses in the face of such records did not testify to a higher elevation, but in such cases the amount of elevation rested in memory running back more than ten or fifteen years, a memory stimulated by the subsequent high pitches of Eibel and the retrospect of the
This is confirmed by the fact that greater elevation was not needed for the purpose of drainage for which it was devised and used. It is true that some witnesses testify that they realized before Eibel's application that speeding up the stock to equal velocity with the wire would solve the difficulty and aid the speed. But there is not a single written record, letter or specification of prior date to Eibel's application that discloses any such discovery by anyone, or the use of the pitch of the wire to aid the speed of the machine. The oral evidence on this point falls far short of being enough to overcome the presumption of novelty from the granting of the patent. The temptation to remember in such cases and the ease with which honest witnesses can convince themselves after many years of having had a conception at the basis of a valuable patent, are well known in this branch of law, and have properly led to a rule that evidence to prove prior discovery must be clear and satisfactory. Barbed Wire Patent Case, 143 U.S. 275, 284; Loom Co. v. Higgins, 105 U.S. 580, 591. Indeed when we consider the indisputable fact that Eibel's successful experiment at Rhinelander and his application for a patent surprised the whole paper trade, and that for a short time many held back from risking so radical a change and then all adopted it, oral evidence that some persons had discovered the source of trouble and the means of remedying it some years before Eibel is incredible. We are confirmed in this conclusion by the finding of Judge Hale in the District Court which is not
The defendant's counsel contend that the specifications of the Eibel patent require that the only force to be used in giving speed to the stock shall be the force of gravity created by the angle of down hill inclination of the wire. They say that the patentee mentions no other means of acceleration, that he must be confined to this, and that a machine which uses other factors for this purpose does not infringe. We do not understand the Circuit Court of Appeals to go quite so far, but it does seem to give a construction requiring the force of gravity caused by the pitch of the wire to be the predominating cause of the increased speed of the stock. The factors of speed of the stock in such a machine before the factor of pitch was applied to increase it, were the head or hydraulic pressure of the stock in the flow box behind the slice, imparting movement to it as it came out on to the wire under the lifted slice, and the carrying effect of the moving wire upon the fluid stock as it fell upon the wire and proceeded gradually to form into a web as the fibres were laid and the water drained.
Many calculations were made by defendant's expert Carter, based on the laws of hydraulic pressure and flow, to show that under varying conditions of head and pitch and the speed of the wire, the chief factor would be head, the next the "drag" or carrying effect of the wire and the least in degree and importance in making the velocity of the stock and the wire equal would be the pitch, and that Eibel's invention could not be present because the "drag" of the wire and its influence upon the speed of the stock must be eliminated under Eibel's specifications. We do not so understand it. As the stock descends upon the wire with the head of the flow box, it is thin and liquid, the wire at its greater speed necessarily imparts additional
The defendant introduced expert evidence to show that with a head of 21 1/4 inches in the flow box and a speed of 585 feet to the minute in the wire, and excluding the factor of "drag" of the wire, it would require and elevation of 48 inches to make up the difference in speed of the stock given by the head and the speed of the wire at a distance 10 feet from the point of discharge on the wire. The conclusion drawn from this seems to be that as no practical machine uses 48 inches pitch, the Eibel invention has never been used or infringed. Disregarding its error in omitting necessary factors already adverted to, this reasoning seems to us to depend on too narrow a construction of the patent.
Eibel was an avowed improver, not in the art of paper making generally, but upon a well-known and universally
"For the purpose of increasing the speed of the machine to the maximum I maintain the breast-roll end of the making-wire at a high elevation above the level, so that the stock travels by gravity much faster than the making-wire ordinarily runs for a certain grade of stock, and I then increase the speed of the machine to such extent as to bring the rate of speed of the making-wire up to the speed of the rapidly-moving stock, and as a result the capacity of the machine is largely increased."
We agree fully with Judge Hale in the District Court in his comment on this:
"The process invented by him (Eibel) begins to operate after the stock has entered upon the wire. His apparent attempt was to get rid of bubbles and wrinkles, before he got to the place on the machine where the paper is formed. To do this, he allowed gravity to work with `drag' and with `head.' He harnessed all the elements he could find. He brought gravity in with the other elements, and so brought the speed of the stock up to equality with that of the wire. By this means he achieved high speed and also freed the stock on the wire from waves and ripples." 267 Fed. 855.
The Circuit Court of Appeals questions the assumption that gravity was a new factor with Eibel, because the head of the flow box is only another application of the force of gravity. This is a mere criticism of a term which whether accurate or not is not misleading. What Eibel was dealing with in his patent as a new factor was the additional
We think, then, that the Eibel patent is to be construed to cover a Fourdrinier machine in which the pitch of the wire is used as an appreciable factor, in addition to the factors of speed theretofore known in the machine, in bringing about an approximation to the equal velocity of the stock and the wire at the point where but for such approximation the injurious disturbance and ripples of the stock would be produced.
The next objection to the patent which prevailed in the Circuit Court of Appeals is that its terms are too vague because the extent of the factor of pitch is not defined except by the terms "substantial" and "high". The figure accompanying the specification and illustrating the improvement indicates an angle of four per cent. or an elevation of 12 inches, and the reference to the small elevations for drainage shown in earlier devices indicates that the patentee had in mind elevations substantial as compared with them in order to achieve his purpose of substantially increasing the speed of the stock. It was difficult for him to be more definite, due to the varying conditions of speed and stock existing in the operations of Fourdrinier machines and the necessary variation in the pitch to be used to accomplish the purpose of his invention. Indefiniteness is objectionable because the patent does not disclose to the public how the discovery, if there is one, can be made useful and how its infringement may be avoided. We do not think any such consequences are involved here. This patent and its specifications were manifested to readers who were skilled in the art of paper making and versed in the use of the Fourdrinier machine. The evidence discloses that one, so skilled, had no difficulty,
It is contended on behalf of the defendant that whether Barrett and Horne perceived the advantage of speeding up the stock to an equality with the wire, yet the necessary effect of their devices was to achieve that result and therefore their machine anticipated Eibel. In the first place we find no evidence that any pitch of the wire, used before Eibel, had brought about such a result as that sought by him, and in the second place if it had done so under unusual conditions, accidental results, not intended and not appreciated, do not constitute anticipation. Tilghman v. Proctor, 102 U.S. 707, 711; Pittsburgh Reduction Co. v. Cowles Electric Co., 55 Fed. 301, 307; Andrews v. Carman, 13 Blatchf. 307, 323.
It is next objected that the alleged invention covers only a matter of degree in pitch which can not be the subject of a patent. The prior art showed the application
"I should say not. It looks to me as if Barrette and Horned referred to the adjustment of inclination with one effect in mind, and that Eibel referred to like adjustment with another effect in mind. . . . In this particular case, the two effects have, so far as I can see, no special correlation to one another, and an adjustment made with one effect in mind might or might not produce a desirable effect as to the other function or phenomenon."
In considering this phase of the controversy, we must not lose sight of the fact that one essential part of Eibel's discovery was that the trouble causing the defective paper product under high machine speed was in the disturbance and ripples some ten feet from the discharge and that
The Circuit Court of Appeals dwells on the fact that the use of the pitch of the wire was not really the introduction
We come finally to the question of infringement. If the Eibel patent is to be construed as we have construed it, there can be no doubt that the defendant uses the Eibel invention. The device which the defendant uses for tilting the wire, i.e., by shimming blocks, and that for regulating and increasing the speed of the wire, are plainly equivalents of the same elements in the new combination which Eibel shows in his drawings and specifications. The defendant uses a Fourdrinier machine having the breast roll end of the paper-making wire maintained at an elevation of 15 inches above the level whereby the stock is caused to travel by gravity rapidly in the direction of the movement of the wire and at a speed approximately
Question has been made whether these three claims are for a machine or a process. We think they are claims for a machine, i. e., for an improvement on a machine, and that the devices for such improvement, to wit, the elevation by a screw or other equivalent method, and the control of the speed of the wire, are shown by the specifications and the figures, together with a sufficient description of their operation.
The seventh and eighth claims are for the same improvement with the suction boxes changed from their usual position in the unimproved machine to make them effectively function on the pitched wire. They are machine claims and are infringed by the defendant. Their new adjustment is part of a new combination and the words substantially as described limit them to a combination including the elements included in the first three claims.
Claim No. 12 is as follows:
"12. In a Fourdrinier machine, a downwardly-moving paper-making wire, the declination and speed of which are so regulated that the velocity of the stock down the declining wire, caused by gravity, is so related to the
This comes nearer to being a process claim but whether it is or not the defendant infringes it.
The evidence discloses that after the suit was brought, the defendant reduced the pitch of one of its machines to six inches and the contention of defendant is that the machine ran as well and gave as good results as when its pitch was 15 inches. We are not called upon to decide whether this contention can be sustained because the reduction was after the bill was filed. It may be noted, however, that the admissions of witnesses seem to show that this reduction was made for purposes of the suit and that immediately after the defendant won the suit in the Circuit Court of Appeals, it restored the pitch of this machine to 15 inches, and when the decree of the Circuit Court of Appeals proved not to be final, the wire was Cowered again to a 6-inch pitch. Much evidence was taken and much discussion has followed upon the point whether a 6-inch pitch accomplishing in whole or in part what Eibel sought to do would infringe a patent for a substantial pitch. We do not find it necessary to pass definitely on the question because it is not before us on the record, though we can not prevent the natural inferences upon this point to be drawn from the conclusions we have reached.
The decree of the Circuit Court of Appeals dismissing the bill is reversed and the decree of the District Court is affirmed.