MR. JUSTICE GRAY, after stating the case as above, delivered the opinion of the court.
The first section of the fourth article of the Constitution of the United States is as follows: "Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof." This section was intended to give the same conclusive effect to the judgments of all the States, so as to promote certainty and uniformity in the rule among them. And Congress, in the exercise of the power so conferred, besides prescribing the manner in which the records and judicial proceedings of any State may be authenticated, has defined the effect thereof, by enacting that "the said records and judicial proceedings, so authenticated, shall have such faith and credit given to them in every court within the United States as they have by law or usage in the courts of the State from which they are taken." Rev. Stat. § 905, reenacting act of May 26, 1790, c. 11, 1 Stat. 122; Huntington v. Attrill, (1892) 146 U.S. 657, 684.
By the General Statutes of Kentucky of 1873, c. 52, art. 3, courts of equity may grant a divorce for abandonment by one party of the other for one year; petitions for divorce must be brought in the county where the wife usually resides if she has an actual residence in the State; if not, then in the county of the husband's residence; and shall not be taken for confessed,
By the Civil Code of Practice of Kentucky of 1876, tit. 4, c. 2, art. 2, if a defendant has been absent from the State four months, and the plaintiff files an affidavit stating in what country the defendant resides or may be found and the name of the place wherein a post-office is kept nearest to the place where the defendant resides or may be found, the clerk may make an order warning the defendant to defend the action within sixty days; and shall at the same time appoint, as attorney for the defendant, a regular practising attorney of the court, whose duty it shall be to make diligent efforts to inform the defendant by mail concerning the pendency and nature of the action against him, and to report to the court the result of his efforts; and a defendant against whom a warning order is made, and for whom an attorney is appointed, is deemed to have been constructively summoned on the thirtieth day thereafter, and the action may proceed accordingly.
In accordance with these statutes, on December 28, 1892, the husband filed in a proper court of Kentucky a petition, under oath, for a divorce from the bond of matrimony, alleging his wife's abandonment of him ever since October, 1891, and that she had been absent from the State for more than four months, and might be found at Clinton in the State of New York, and that in Clinton was kept the post-office nearest the place where she might be found; and the clerk entered a warning order, and appointed an attorney at law for the defendant. On January 5, 1893, that attorney wrote to the wife at Clinton, fully advising her of the object of the petition for divorce, and enclosing a copy thereof, in a letter addressed to her by mail at that place, and having printed on the envelope a direction to return it to him, if not delivered within ten days. On February 6, 1893, the attorney, not having received that letter again, or any answer from the defendant, or in her behalf, made his report to the court. And on March 14, 1893, the court, after taking evidence, including an agreement made by the parties in Kentucky, October 10, 1891, as to the domicil, custody and support
There can be no doubt that this decree was by law and usage entitled to full faith and credit as an absolute decree of divorce in the State of Kentucky. The Court of Appeals of that State has held that, under its statutes, a wife residing in the State was entitled to obtain a decree of divorce against a husband who had left the State, or who had never been within it; and Chief Justice Robertson said: "It would be a reproach to our legislation if a faithless husband in Kentucky could, by leaving the State, deprive his abandoned wife of a power of obtaining a divorce at home." Rhyms v. Rhyms, (1870) 7 Bush, 316; Perzel v. Perzel, (1891) 91 Kentucky, 634. That court has recognized that the regulation of divorce belongs to the legislature of the domicil of the parties. Maguire v. Maguire, (1838) 7 Dana, 181, 185-187. And the same court, where husband and wife had lived together in Kentucky, and she abandoned him, and he became a bona fide citizen of Indiana, held that a divorce from the bonds of matrimony, obtained by him against the wife in that State, by proceedings on constructive service, and according to the laws of that State, determined the status of the parties in Kentucky. Hawkins v. Ragsdale, (1882) 80 Kentucky, 353.
There is a weight of authority in accord with the views maintained by the Court of Appeals of Kentucky, although there are some decisions of learned courts to the contrary.
The purpose and effect of a decree of divorce from the bond of matrimony, by a court of competent jurisdiction, are to change the existing status or domestic relation of husband and wife, and to free them both from the bond. The marriage tie, when thus severed as to one party, ceases to bind either. A husband without a wife, or a wife without a husband, is unknown to the law. When the law provides, in the nature of a penalty, that the guilty party shall not marry again, that party, as well as the other, is still absolutely freed from the bond of the former marriage.
The rule as to the notice necessary to give full effect to a
In Pennoyer v. Neff, (1877) 95 U.S. 714, 734, this court, speaking by Mr. Justice Field, while deciding that a judgment of a state court on a debt could not be supported without personal service on the defendant within the State or his appearance in the cause, took occasion to say: "To prevent any misapplication of the views expressed in this opinion, it is proper to observe that we do not mean to assert, by anything we have said, that a State may not authorize proceedings to determine the status of one of its citizens towards a non-resident, which would be binding within the State, though made without service of process or personal notice to the non-resident. The jurisdiction which every State possesses to determine the civil status and capacities of all its inhabitants involves authority to prescribe the conditions on which the proceedings affecting them may be commenced and carried on within its territory. The State, for example, has absolute right to prescribe the conditions upon which the marriage relation between its own citizens shall be created, and the causes for which it may be dissolved. One of the parties, guilty of acts for which, by the law of the State, a dissolution may be granted, may have removed to a State where no dissolution is permitted. The complaining party would therefore fail if a divorce were sought in the State of the defendant; and if application could not be made to the tribunals of the complainant's domicil in such case, and proceedings be there instituted without personal service of process or personal notice to the offending party, the injured citizen would be without redress. 2 Bishop on Marriage and Divorce, § 156."
In Cheeley v. Clayton, (1884) 110 U.S. 701, which involved the validity of a decree of divorce, obtained in Colorado by a husband domiciled there, against his wife for unjustifiably refusing to live with him, this court said: "The courts of the State of the domicil of the parties doubtless have jurisdiction to decree a divorce in accordance with its laws, for any cause allowed by those laws, without regard to the place of the marriage, or to that of the commission of the offence for which the divorce is granted; and a divorce so obtained is valid everywhere.
In Harding v. Alden, (1832) 9 Greenl. 140, the husband and wife lived together in Maine. He deserted her, and took up a residence in North Carolina, and there married and lived with another woman. The first wife then moved to and resided in Providence, Rhode Island, and there filed a libel in the Supreme Judicial Court for an absolute divorce against him for his desertion and adultery; and the court, after service of a citation on him, and two continuances of the cause, decreed a divorce as prayed for. The husband was never an inhabitant of Rhode Island. The wife afterwards married another man. The Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, in an opinion delivered by Mr. Justice Weston, held that the divorce in Rhode Island dissolved the bond of marriage between the parties; and said:
Chancellor Kent, in his Commentaries, says of that case that it was there held "that a decree of divorce did not fall within the rule that a judgment rendered against one not within the State, nor bound by its laws, nor amendable to its jurisdiction, was not entitled to credit against the defendant in another State; and that divorces pronounced according to the law of one jurisdiction, and the new relations thereupon formed, ought to be recognized, in the absence of all fraud, as operative and binding everywhere, so far as related to the dissolution of the marriage, though not as to other parts of the decree, such as an order for the payment of money by the husband." And the Chancellor adds, "This is an important and valuable decision." 2 Kent Com. 110, note.
In Ditson v. Ditson, (1856) 4 Rhode Island, 87, (of which Judge Cooley, in his Treatise on Constitutional Limitations, 403, note, says there is no case in the books more full and satisfactory upon the whole subject of jurisdiction in divorce suits,) the Supreme Court of Rhode Island, in an elaborate opinion by Chief Justice Ames, affirmed its jurisdiction, upon constructive notice by publication, to grant a divorce to a wife domiciled in Rhode Island against a husband who had never been in Rhode Island, and whose place of residence was unknown; and said: "It is obvious that marriage, as a domestic relation, emerged from the contract which created it, is known and recognized as such throughout the civilized world; that it gives rights and imposes duties and restrictions upon the parties to it, affecting their social and moral condition, of the measure of which every civilized State, and certainly every State of this Union, is the sole judge so far as its own citizens or subjects are concerned, and should be so deemed by other civilized, and especially sister States; that a State cannot be deprived, directly or indirectly, of its sovereign power to regulate the status of its own domiciled subjects and citizens, by the fact that the subjects and citizens of other States, as related to them, are interested in that status; and in such a matter has a right, under the general law,
The statutes of Massachusetts provided as follows: "When an inhabitant of this State goes into another State or country to obtain a divorce for any cause occurring here, and whilst the parties resided here, or for any cause which would not authorize a divorce by the laws of this State, a divorce so obtained shall be of no force or effect in this State. In all other cases, a divorce decreed in any other State or country according to the laws thereof, by a court having jurisdiction of the cause and both the parties, shall be valid and effectual in this State." That provision made no change in the law, but, in the words of the Commissioners upon whose advice it was first enacted, "is founded on the rule established by the comity of all civilized nations; and is proposed merely that no doubt should arise on a question so interesting and important as this may sometimes be." Gen. Stat. of 1860, c. 107, §§ 54, 55; Rev. Stat. of 1836, c. 76, §§ 39, 40, and note of Commissioners; Ross v. Ross, 129 Mass. 243, 248.
In Hood v. Hood, (1865) 11 Allen, 196, the husband and wife, after living together in Massachusetts, removed to Illinois, and there lived together; the wife, "under circumstances as to which there was no evidence," and afterwards the husband,
The like view has been affirmed by courts of other States. Thompson v. State, (1856) 28 Alabama, 13; Leith v. Leith, (1859) 39 N.H. 20, 39-43; Shafer v. Bushnell, (1869) 24 Wisconsin, 372; Gould v. Crow, (1874) 57 Missouri, 200; Van Orsdal v. Van Orsdal, (1885) 67 Iowa, 35; Smith v. Smith, (1891) 43 La. Ann. 1140; In re James, (1893) 99 California, 374; Dunham v. Dunham, (1896) 162 Illinois, 589, 607-610.
In a very recent case, the Court of Errors of New Jersey maintained the validity of a divorce obtained in the State of Utah by a husband, having his bona fide domicil there, against a wife whose domicil was in New Jersey, after publication of the process and complaint in accordance with the statutes of Utah, and personal service upon the wife in New Jersey in time to enable her to make defence, if she wished to do so. Mr. Justice Gummere, speaking for the Court of Errors, said that, at least, "interstate comity requires that a decree of divorce, pronounced by a court of the State in which the complainant is domiciled, and which has jurisdiction of the subject-matter of the suit, shall, in the absence of fraud, be given full force and effect within the jurisdiction of a sister State, notwithstanding that the defendant does not reside within the jurisdiction of the court which pronounced the decree, and has not been served with process therein; provided that a substituted service has been made in accordance with the provisions of the statute of that State, and that actual notice of the pendency of the suit has been given to the defendant, and a reasonable opportunity afforded to put in a defence thereto; and provided, further, that the ground upon which the decree rests is one which the public policy of the State in which it is sought to be enforced recognizes as a sufficient cause for divorce." Felt v. Felt, (1899) 14 Dickinson (59 N.J. Eq.).
In New York, North Carolina and South Carolina, the opposite view has prevailed, either upon the ground that the rule
In People v. Baker, 76 N.Y. 78, upon which the subsequent decisions in New York are based, the defendant was married to a woman in the State of Ohio; they afterwards lived together in the State of New York; the wife, upon notice by publication, and without personal appearance of the husband, he being in New York, obtained a decree of divorce against him in Ohio; and he afterwards married another woman in New York, and was convicted of bigamy there. The conviction was affirmed by the Court of Appeals, without a suggestion that the first wife was not domiciled in Ohio at the time of the divorce, but stating the question in the case to be: "Can a court, in another State, adjudge to be dissolved and at an end the matrimonial relation of a citizen of this State, domiciled and actually abiding here throughout the pendency of the judicial proceedings there, without a voluntary appearance by him therein, and with no actual notice to him thereof, and without personal service of process on him in that State?" The court admitted that "if one party to a proceeding is domiciled in a State, the status of that party, as affected by the matrimonial relation, may be adjudged upon and confirmed or changed, in accordance with the laws of that State;" but held that, without personal appearance or actual notice, the decree could not affect the matrimonial relation of the defendant in another State. The court recognized that the law was settled otherwise in some States, and said: "It remains for the Supreme Court of the United States, as the final arbiter, to determine how far a judgment rendered in such a case, upon such substituted service of process, shall be operative without the territorial jurisdiction of the tribunal giving it."
The authorities above cited show the wide diversity of opinion
This case does not involve the validity of a divorce granted, on constructive service, by the court of a State in which only one of the parties ever had a domicil; nor the question to what extent the good faith of the domicil may be afterwards inquired into. In this case, the divorce in Kentucky was by the court of the State which had always been the undoubted domicil of the husband, and which was the only matrimonial domicil of the husband and wife. The single question to be decided is the validity of that divorce, granted after such notice had been given as was required by the statutes of Kentucky.
The husband always had his domicil in Kentucky, and the matrimonial domicil of the parties was in Kentucky. On December 28, 1892, the husband filed his petition for a divorce in the court of appropriate jurisdiction in Kentucky, alleging an abandonment of him by the wife in Kentucky, and a continuance of that abandonment for a year, which was a cause of divorce by the laws of Kentucky. His petition truly stated, upon oath, as required by the statutes of Kentucky, that the wife might be found at Clinton in the State of New York, and that at Clinton was the post-office nearest the place where she might be found. As required by the statutes of Kentucky, the clerk thereupon entered a warning order to the wife to appear in sixty days, and appointed an attorney at law to represent her. The attorney, on January 5, 1893, wrote to the wife at Clinton, fully advising her of the object of the petition for divorce, and enclosing a copy thereof, in a letter addressed to her by mail at Clinton, and having printed on the envelope a direction to return it to him, if not delivered in ten days. There is a presumption of fact, though not of law, that a letter, put into the post-office, and properly addressed, is received by the person to whom it is addressed. Rosenthal v. Walker, (1884) 111 U.S. 185. On February 6, 1893, the attorney, having received no answer, made his report to the court. And on March 14, 1893, the court, after taking evidence, granted the husband an absosolute decree of divorce for his wife's abandonment of him.
The court of New York has indeed found that the wife "was
The court in New York found that the wife left the husband and went to Clinton with the purpose and intention of not returning to the State of Kentucky, but of permanently residing in the State of New York; and that this purpose and intention were understood by the husband at the time, and were contemplated and evidenced by the agreement executed by the parties in Kentucky, October 10, 1891. But that agreement was among the proofs submitted to the court in Kentucky, and may well have been considered by that court, as the preamble to the agreement states, as simply intended to provide for the interest of their child, recognizing that the parties had ceased to live together as husband and wife, but "without in any way acknowledging upon whom is the fault, or condoning the conduct of the one or the other which has led to the existing state of affairs, or preventing any consequence which may follow, or right which may arise to either party if such status shall continue." The agreement contains no mention of the domicil of either husband or wife, but declares that the domicil of the child is to be the State of Kentucky, and is taken up with providing that its custody shall be half of each year with the mother, and the other half with the paternal grandmother, and with providing for the support and custody of the child, in various future contingencies, including the divorce and second marriage of the husband or of the wife.
We are of opinion that the undisputed facts show that such efforts were required by the statutes of Kentucky, and were actually made, to give the wife actual notice of the suit in Kentucky, as to make the decree of the court there, granting a divorce upon the ground that she had abandoned her husband,
To hold otherwise would make it difficult, if not impossible, for the husband to obtain a divorce for the cause alleged, if it actually existed. The wife not being within the State of Kentucky, if constructive notice, with all the precautions prescribed by the statutes of that State, were insufficient to bind her by a decree dissolving the bond of matrimony, the husband could only get a divorce by suing in the State in which she was found; and by the very fact of suing her there he would admit that she had acquired a separate domicil, (which he denied,) and would disprove his own ground of action that she had abandoned him in Kentucky.
The result is that the courts of New York have not given to the Kentucky decree of divorce the faith and credit which it had by law in Kentucky, and that therefore their
Judgments must be reversed, and the case remanded to the Supreme Court of New York for further proceedings not inconsistent with this opinion.
MR. JUSTICE PECKHAM, with whom THE CHIEF JUSTICE concurred, dissenting.
I think this case was rightly decided by the Court of Appeals of New York, and I therefore dissent from the judgment and the opinion of the court herein.
I think if the husband had, at his domicil in Kentucky, been guilty of such misconduct and cruelty towards his wife as entitled her to a divorce, she had a legal right for that reason to leave him and to acquire a separate domicil, even in another State. If, under such circumstances, she did leave him, and did acquire a separate domicil in New York State, the Kentucky court did not obtain jurisdiction over her as an absent defendant, by publication of process or sending a copy thereof through the mail to her address in New York.
By the statute of New York in force at the time the parties were therein married, the court had jurisdiction to grant a limited divorce on the complaint of a married woman, where the marriage had been solemnized in the State and the wife was an actual resident therein at the time of exhibiting her complaint. By virtue of this statute and of the wife's residence in New York at the time of exhibiting her complaint, (if such residence were legally acquired, as already stated,) the court in that State had jurisdiction of an action for divorce against her husband, and jurisdiction over the husband was complete when he appeared in the suit. Having the right to acquire a residence in the State, it was open to her to prove in the divorce case which she instituted in New York the facts which justified her leaving her husband's home in Kentucky and in acquiring a separate domicil in New York, and the decision of the Kentucky court, that it had jurisdiction over her in her husband's suit, was not conclusive against her upon that question. The New York court entered upon the inquiry and found the fact that she was justified by her husband's acts in leaving his home and in acquiring a new domicil for herself, and that the Kentucky court
That a husband can drive his wife from his home by conduct which entitles her to a divorce, and thus force her to find another domicil, and then commence proceedings in a court of his own domicil, for a divorce, which court obtains jurisdiction over her only by a service of process in the State of her new domicil, through the mail, and that on such service he can obtain a judgment of divorce which shall be conclusive against her in her action in the court of her own domicil, seems to me to be at war with sound principle and the adjudged cases. The doctrine of status, even as announced in the opinion of the court, does not reach the case of a husband by his misconduct rendering it necessary for the wife to leave him. I therefore dissent.
I am authorized to state that the CHIEF JUSTICE concurs in this dissent.