This case comes to us on two reported questions and calls upon us to construe for the first time the so-called VALOR Act, St. 2012, c. 108, entitled "An Act relative to veterans' access, livelihood, opportunity and resources." The VALOR Act was enacted in 2012 in the aftermath of protracted American military engagements in Afghanistan and Iraq. In recognition of the toll thereby taken on many who served in the military, the VALOR Act, among other things, amended the statute providing young adults with pretrial diversion, G. L. c. 276A (pretrial diversion statute), to include qualifying veterans and active duty members of our armed forces facing criminal charges in the District and Boston Municipal Courts.
We address first whether, under the pretrial diversion statute, as amended by the VALOR Act, a judge is authorized to dismiss or to continue such charges without a finding upon a defendant's successful completion of an approved pretrial diversion program. We conclude that the judge is so authorized, rejecting the Commonwealth's view that the VALOR Act amendments permit only a continuance of court proceedings, on the flawed view that, while military defendants could seek treatment through court-approved programs, they would face resumed prosecution of the charged offenses even after the successful completion of such a program.
We go on to address the reported questions and consider whether the pretrial diversion statute, as amended by the VALOR Act, permits a judge to continue without a finding (CWOF) or to dismiss a charge of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OUI), second or subsequent offense, notwithstanding the provisions of G. L. c. 90, § 24, which generally proscribe such dispositions. Our analysis of this question ultimately turns on the legislative intent of the VALOR Act and its multifaceted approach to assisting members of the military in their often-difficult return to civilian life, during which many succumb to substance abuse. We conclude that, notwithstanding otherwise applicable constraints on alternative dispositions that the preexisting OUI statute imposes, the pretrial diversion statute, as amended in 2012 by the VALOR Act, vests judges with discretion to order either of the two alternative dispositions at issue in appropriate cases that involve charges of OUI, second or subsequent offense. We accordingly answer both reported questions
1. Background. We set forth the relevant facts, which are largely undisputed.
Immediately upon returning from Afghanistan, Morgan sought mental health treatment through the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), but the VA was unable to schedule an intake appointment for four months. While awaiting evaluation and treatment, Morgan began to self-medicate by abusing alcohol and opioids. In January, 2012, he was evaluated and was diagnosed with PTSD. In the fall of 2012, the VA also determined that Morgan was one hundred per cent disabled. On Veteran's Day, in November, 2012, Morgan's identical twin brother, himself a veteran of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, who suffered from PTSD and a traumatic brain injury, committed suicide. The impact of his twin's suicide on Morgan's efforts to return to ordinary civilian life was considerable.
In April, 2013, Morgan entered a short-term detoxification program at a VA hospital in Bedford. Immediately after release from that program, he entered an intensive outpatient program, but completed only one month. In July, 2013, Morgan visited his mother, who had moved to California, and he successfully completed a two-month residential treatment program there. He thereafter relapsed.
On September 29, 2014, Morgan was driving erratically on Interstate 495 in Tewksbury when his vehicle swerved into another
When stopped, Morgan appeared to be under an intoxicating influence; he was disheveled and sweating, with glassy eyes and slurred speech. Dried blood and needle marks were visible on his left arm. The trooper who conducted the stop called for backup, and ultimately was joined by four other troopers. Morgan informed one of the troopers that he had heroin and a hypodermic needle in his possession, and those items were taken into police custody. Morgan was arrested and driven to the State police barracks for booking. He waived his Miranda rights and agreed to be evaluated by a drug recognition specialist, who concluded that Morgan was exhibiting signs of opioid use. Police found drug paraphernalia in the vehicle near the driver's seat, including plastic bags, a bottle cap, and two hypodermic needles.
The following week, Morgan was arraigned in the District Court on charges of OUI, second offense; possession of heroin; negligent operation of a motor vehicle; and leaving the scene of property damage. When his attorney later learned that Morgan was a veteran, she sought pretrial diversion under the VALOR Act. He was evaluated by the VA, which determined that he would benefit from such a program.
At different VA medical centers, Morgan underwent detoxification, received specialized PTSD counselling for the first time, and also began supportive counselling for substance abuse, in conjunction with monthly Naltrexone
Acknowledging that the case presented an unsettled question of law, the judge reported the following two questions to the Appeals Court, pursuant to Mass. R. Crim. P. 34, as amended, 442 Mass. 1501
We allowed Morgan's application for direct appellate review.
2. Statutory background. Two statutes are relevant to our consideration of the reported questions. We set forth each in pertinent detail.
a. Pretrial diversion statute, G. L. c. 276A. In 1974, the Legislature inserted c. 276A into the General Laws by enacting St. 1974, c. 781, "An Act establishing a district court procedure to divert selected offenders from the district courts to programs of community supervision and service." As initially enacted, the statute provided for pretrial diversion to a program, followed by dismissal or a continuance without a finding, for young adults who were at least eighteen, but not yet twenty-two years old.
"The district courts, and in Boston, the municipal court of the city of Boston, shall have jurisdiction to divert to a program ... any person who is charged with an offense or offenses against the [C]ommonwealth for which a term of imprisonment may be imposed and over which the [D]istrict [C]ourts may exercise final jurisdiction and who has reached the age of [eighteen] years but has not reached the age of twenty-two, who has not previously been convicted of a violation of any law of the [C]ommonwealth or of any other [S]tate or of the United States in any criminal court proceeding after having reached the age of [eighteen] years, ... who does not have any outstanding warrants, continuances, appeals or criminal cases pending before any courts of the [C]ommonwealth or any other [S]tate or of the United States, and who has received a recommendation from a program that he would, in light of the capacities of and guidelines governing it, benefit from participation in said program."
G. L. c. 276A, § 2.
In 2012, the pretrial diversion statute, among others, was
Section 10 defines eligible military defendants in language that almost precisely mirrors that used in G. L. c. 276A, § 2, to define young adults eligible for the protections of G. L. c. 276A, except that it applies to veterans:
G. L. c. 276A, § 10.
The pretrial diversion statute, as originally enacted in 1974, explicitly excludes otherwise eligible defendants charged with certain offenses from pretrial diversion, G. L. c. 276A, § 4, and sets forth a detailed process to be followed in screening eligible defendants for admission to a program, G. L. c. 276A, § 3. It allows a judge to "afford a fourteen-day continuance for assessment by the personnel of a program to determine if [the
If, after receiving the requisite information in the assessment, and any response by the Commonwealth, the judge determines that the defendant should enter the program, and the defendant "agrees to abide by the terms and conditions in the plan of services," "[t]he criminal proceedings of [a] defendant who qualifies for diversions under [G. L. c. 276A, § 2,] ... shall be stayed for a period of ninety days, unless the judge in his [or her] discretion considers that the interest of justice would be served by a hearing of the facts, after which the case may be continued without a finding for ninety days." G. L. c. 276A, § 5.
At the end of the ninety-day stay or the continuance without a finding, the judge may dismiss the underlying charge "[i]f the report indicates the successful completion of the program by a defendant." G. L. c. 276A, § 7. If, at the end of that time, the defendant has not completed the program successfully, or if the program recommends that the stay be extended, the judge may, in his or her discretion, extend the stay, dismiss the charges, return the case to the trial list, or "take such action as he [or she] deems appropriate." Id.
b. OUI statute, G. L. c. 90, §§ 24, 24D. Against the backdrop of otherwise available alternative dispositions,
3. Discussion. a. Statutory authority under G. L. c. 276A. Until the VALOR Act amended the statute in 2012, the special protections of the pretrial diversion statute that authorized judges to enter continuances without a finding or to dismiss charges against defendants who successfully completed a treatment program had been limited to young adults who were too old to fall under the jurisdiction of the Juvenile Court, but had not yet reached their twenty-second birthdays.
The initial question we confront is whether G. L. c. 276A, as amended by the VALOR Act, permits a judge to dismiss or to continue without a finding criminal charges brought against a qualifying military defendant upon his or her successful completion of an approved pretrial diversion program. The Commonwealth is of the view that §§ 10 and 11 on their face in essence
In construing a statute, we strive to discern and effectuate the intent of the Legislature. The plain language of the statute, read as a whole, provides the primary insight into that intent. See Commonwealth v. Peterson, 476 Mass. 163, 167 (2017). We do not confine our interpretation to the words of a single section. See Commonwealth v. Keefner, 461 Mass. 507, 511 (2012); 2A N.J. Singer & S. Singer, Statutes and Statutory Construction § 46:5 (7th ed. rev. 2014). To the extent that the meaning of a statute remains unclear, we seek to "ascertain the intent of a statute from all its parts and from the subject matter to which it relates, and must interpret the statute so as to render the legislation effective, consonant with sound reason and common sense." Seideman v. Newton, 452 Mass. 472, 477 (2008). We consider "the cause of [the statute's] enactment, the mischief or imperfection to be remedied and the main object to be accomplished." Wing v. Commissioner of Probation, 473 Mass. 368, 373 (2015), quoting Hanlon v. Rollins, 286 Mass. 444, 447 (1934).
We begin with the language of G. L. c. 276A, §§ 10 and 11, viewing it in the context of the pretrial diversion statute as a whole. Doing so leaves no doubt that the Legislature intended to give veterans and active duty members of the military the same benefits of pretrial diversion programs and the alternative dispositions already afforded under the statute to young adults. "When the Legislature uses the same term in ... different statutory sections, the term should be given a consistent meaning throughout." Commonwealth v. Hilaire, 437 Mass. 809, 816 (2002).
The Commonwealth nevertheless argues that the provisions of G. L. c. 276A, §§ 5 and 7 (allowing pretrial diversion programs and alternative dispositions), do not apply to veterans and active duty members of the military who have been deemed eligible for diversion under G. L. c. 276A, § 10. The Commonwealth relies in this regard on the absence of language in §§ 5 and 7 (generally addressing continuances of cases for qualifying young defendants as defined in G. L. c. 276A, § 2), that cross-references §§ 10 and 11 concerning military defendants. At the same time, it ignores the fact that G. L. c. 276A, § 7 (permitting a judge, "[u]pon the expiration of the initial ninety-day stay of proceedings or ... continuance without a finding" to dismiss the charges, extend the stay for further treatment, continue the case without a finding, or resume criminal proceedings), itself references no other section of the statute. Such parsing of the statute is, in any event, unavailing. The proffered construction is inconsistent with the fundamental canons of statutory interpretation, requiring that we read statutes concerning the same subject matter as a harmonious whole wherever possible, see Commonwealth v. Ventura, 465 Mass. 202, 208-209 (2013); Keefner, 461 Mass. at 511, and that we read them in a commonsense way to effectuate legislative intent and avoid absurd results. See, e.g., Worcester v. College Hill Props., Inc., 465 Mass. 134, 138-139 (2013), and cases cited.
To read the statute in the fragmented fashion that the Commonwealth suggests would mean that the VALOR Act amendments do nothing more than allow military defendants some time
Providing pretrial diversion for veterans and active duty members of the military, on the same terms as young adults, is consistent with the Legislature's purpose both in enacting the pretrial diversion statute in 1974 and in amending it through the VALOR Act in 2012. The pretrial diversion statute originally was intended to provide rehabilitation to those whose criminal habits had not become "fixed." See Rosenbloom, Bill Backs `Diversion' for Youths in Trouble, Boston Globe, Feb. 12, 1973, quoting bill supporter. See also Zablotsky, An Analysis of State Pretrial Diversion Statutes, 15 Colum. J.L. & Soc. Probs. 1, 8 (1979). Its supporters observed that a criminal record, coupled with a short period of incarceration, could lead to a "cycle of crime and prison ..., ever more vicious." Help Needed Now for Youthful Offenders, Boston Globe, July 23, 1974, at 22. Avoiding this cycle would benefit both these young adults and society as whole.
In 2012, the Legislature added veterans and active duty members of the military to the pretrial diversion statute in service of the same goal: addressing the special needs of a group of offenders for whom the Legislature believed conviction and punishment were not necessarily appropriate. As with young adults, the Legislature recognized that, for veterans and active duty members
The special consideration afforded to veterans in the District Courts was part of the VALOR Act's comprehensive effort to "[e]nsur[e] access to health care, education, employment and financial security" for veterans, particularly the 37,000 Massachusetts veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. See Press Release, Governor Patrick Signs VALOR Act to Increase Opportunities for Veterans (May 31, 2012). Imposing an alternative disposition to avoid a criminal conviction furthers these goals. See Commonwealth v. Pon, 469 Mass. 296, 316-317 (2014) (effects of conviction may include severe collateral consequences including "unemployment, underemployment, or homelessness").
b. Constitutional authority. The Commonwealth maintains that, to the extent the pretrial diversion statute, as amended by the VALOR Act, authorizes judges to order alternative dispositions, it violates the separation of powers. See art. 30 of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights ("the judicial [branch] shall never exercise the ... executive powers"). The Commonwealth is mistaken.
A decision whether to prosecute a criminal case rests exclusively with the executive branch. In the absence of a legal basis to do so, it is well established that a judge may not dismiss a valid complaint over the Commonwealth's objection. See Commonwealth v. Cheney, 440 Mass. 568, 574 (2003). Where the Legislature has granted the authority to dismiss a case or to continue it without a finding, however, a judge may exercise that authority without offending art. 30. See Commonwealth v. Guzman, 446 Mass. 344, 349 (2006) (dismissal); Commonwealth v. Pyles, 423 Mass. 717, 719 (1996) (continuance without a finding). This is so because of the Legislature's "broad authority to classify criminal conduct, to establish criminal penalties, and to adopt rules of criminal ... procedure." Pyles, supra at 722. As the pretrial diversion statute provides specific authority to a District Court judge to dismiss a case or to continue it without a finding, a judge exercising that authority is not in violation of the separation of
c. Reported questions. Having concluded that a judge has authority under the pretrial diversion statute to enter a dismissal or a continuance without a finding as to qualifying defendants in appropriate circumstances, we turn to the reported questions.
The provisions of the pretrial diversion statute that authorize judges to allow the alternative dispositions discussed appear to conflict with the OUI statute, insofar as the latter prohibits a charge of OUI, second or subsequent offense, from being "placed on file or continued without a finding." G. L. c. 90, § 24. The Commonwealth urges that we resolve this apparent conflict by applying the maxim that a more specific statute controls over one that is more general. See Commonwealth v. Harris, 443 Mass. 714, 723-724 (2005); Boston Housing Auth. v. Labor Relations Comm'n, 398 Mass. 715, 718 (1986). It urges that the result will then be that a judge may not continue without a finding or dismiss such charges because the OUI statute controls over the pretrial diversion statute.
Neither statute, however, fairly may be said to be more specific than the other, because each covers ground that the other does not. See Harris, 443 Mass. at 724-725; Commonwealth v. John G. Grant & Sons, 403 Mass. 151, 156 (1988) ("neither penalty provision is more specific than the other and thus controlling"). The OUI statute is more specific in the sense that it applies only to one type of offense; the pretrial diversion statute is more specific in that its application is limited to two narrow subsets of defendants. Neither statute fully encompasses the other, but, instead, the two statutes overlap in part, akin to a Venn diagram. In the circumstances here, denominating one statute as more specific than the other would rest on no more than an arbitrary choice.
Similarly, another statutory maxim, to the effect that the later statute controls over the earlier, see Commonwealth v. Russ R., 433 Mass. 515, 521 (2001), does not resolve the matter. The history of amendments to both statutes precludes a simple answer to the question which statute predates the other. The limitations governing alternative dispositions for those charged with OUI, second offense, have been amended many times over the past eighty-five years,
These tools being of limited utility at best, we look beyond them in an effort to harmonize the two statutes by discerning the underlying policies each serves. See Wing, 473 Mass. at 373; Harris, 443 Mass. at 726 (we look to "serve the policies underlying both" statutes "to the greatest extent possible"). The OUI statute serves the evident goal of protecting the public from the grave dangers presented by those drivers who repeatedly drive while impaired by alcohol or drugs. The pretrial diversion statute, for reasons already discussed, gives special consideration to two groups of people who are susceptible to substance abuse but may be amenable to successful rehabilitation. The two statutes do not serve the same goals except to the extent that successful rehabilitation of drivers with substance abuse problems will redound to public safety. Mindful that the VALOR Act was enacted against the backdrop of two preexisting statutes with which the Legislature had familiarity, we reconcile both, however imperfectly, by concluding that the Legislature did not intend to preclude the alternative dispositions permitted under the pretrial diversion statute in situations such as this. See Harris, supra.
We note that, in amending c. 276A in 2012, the Legislature expressed special concern for veterans and active military service members struggling with substance abuse. Specifically, in the words of then Secretary of Veterans' Services Coleman Nee, legislators recognized that trauma as a result of combat service, "may lead to ... substance abuse," see Tuoti, Court for Vets Opens in Boston, Enterprise, Mar. 7, 2014, and that, for service members thus ensnared, "incarceration without medical or clinical support results in a higher rate of recidivism." Bolton, Court Throws Veterans a Lifeline, Boston Globe, Apr. 11, 2013.
As one of the sponsors of the VALOR Act, Representative
This conclusion does not diminish recognition of the serious hazard to public safety presented by those who drive while impaired by drugs or alcohol, especially by those who do so repeatedly, nor does it question the importance of deterring this
It is also well to note that by vesting District Court judges with discretion to order pretrial diversion to certain military defendants, the statute does not in any way offer assurance of an alternative disposition.
Finally, while we conclude that the construction we provide of the pretrial diversion statute, as amended by the VALOR Act, satisfactorily reconciles it with the OUI statute and best effectuates the Legislature's intent when enacting the VALOR Act in
3. Conclusion. We answer both reported questions "Yes" and remand the case to the District Court for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.
Soon thereafter, the Legislature eliminated this categorical rule, but, in language still in effect today, provided that a defendant charged with any OUI offense could not receive an alternative disposition "unless the interests of justice require." St. 1936, c. 434, § 1. In 1982, the Legislature limited the availability of continuances without a finding on a charge of OUI, even where required by the interests of justice, to the detailed and specific requirements set forth in G. L. c. 90, § 24D. See St. 1982 c. 373, § 2. In 1994, and again in 2002, the Legislature again limited those defendants eligible for pretrial diversion under G. L. c. 90, § 24D. See St. 1994, c. 25; St. 2002, c. 302.
Throughout a defendant's participation in a pretrial diversion program, the program must submit periodic reports to the judge. See G. L. c. 276A, § 6. At any point during that period, should the program report that the defendant has failed to comply with program requirements, or if the defendant commits a new offense, the judge may order the stay terminated and the case returned to the trial list. See id. After the initial period of the stay, if the program reports that an extension of the stay would help the defendant successfully to complete the program, the judge may order such an extension. See G. L. c. 276A, § 7.