TALLMAN, Circuit Judge:
We consider whether a public school district infringes the First Amendment liberties of one of its teachers when it orders him not to use his public position as a pulpit from which to preach his own views on the role of God in our Nation's history to the captive students in his mathematics classroom. The answer is clear: it does not.
When Bradley Johnson, a high school calculus teacher, goes to work and performs the duties he is paid to perform, he speaks not as an individual, but as a public employee, and the school district is free to "take legitimate and appropriate steps to ensure that its message is neither garbled nor distorted." Rosenberger v. Rector & Visitors of the Univ. of Va., 515 U.S. 819, 833, 115 S.Ct. 2510, 132 L.Ed.2d 700 (1995). Just as the Constitution would not protect Johnson were he to decide that he no longer wished to teach math at all, preferring to discuss Shakespeare rather than Newton, it does not permit him to speak as freely at work in his role as a teacher about his views on God, our Nation's history, or God's role in our Nation's history as he might on a sidewalk, in a park, at his dinner table, or in countless other locations.
Because we further conclude that the school district did not violate Johnson's rights under either the Establishment or Equal Protection clauses of the United States Constitution, as applied by the Fourteenth Amendment,
Bradley Johnson has spent more than 30 years teaching math to the students of the Poway Unified School District of San Diego County, California. In August 2003, he moved to the newly opened Westview High School to teach calculus and algebra. He teaches there still and is the faculty sponsor of the school's student Christian club.
In late 2006, a fellow teacher at Westview set this action in motion when he questioned Dawn Kastner, the newly hired principal of Westview, about two large banners prominently displayed in Johnson's classroom. Kastner, who had also heard about Johnson's banners from a student and another teacher, went to Johnson's classroom to see the banners for herself. What she found surprised her. In Johnson's classroom, two large banners, each about seven-feet wide and two-feet tall, hung on the wall. See Appendix. One had red, white, and blue stripes and stated in large block type: "IN GOD WE TRUST"; "ONE NATION UNDER GOD"; "GOD BLESS AMERICA"; and, "GOD SHED HIS GRACE ON THEE."
Kastner recalled being overwhelmed by the size of the banners. She remembered walking into Johnson's class "and going, `Wow, these are really big.'" She was more concerned, though, about the message. "It was a math class," she later explained. "There were a lot of phrases that individually or in context were not problematic at all. But because they were taken out of context and very large, they became a promotion of a particular viewpoint"—a religious viewpoint "that might make students who didn't share that viewpoint uncomfortable." The "common thread in all of those were the words `God, Creator.' Those were all sort of pulled out of the context of their original [meaning]— and the signs were, like, 10 feet, 7 feet, something like that. There were two very large signs."
Unsure as to what she should do, Kastner called Melavel Robertson, one of Poway's assistant superintendents. She described the banners to Robertson and told her that "some people [had] mention[ed] that they don't know why these signs are allowed in the classroom, and I just saw what they're talking about." At Robertson's request, she had pictures taken of Johnson's banners and sent to Robertson, who forwarded them to Bill Chiment, the assistant superintendent tasked with "legal issues."
While waiting for further direction from the superintendent's office, Kastner met with Johnson to talk about his banners. She told him that she felt the signs might inappropriately emphasize the words "God" and "Creator" and suggested that his displays might be more appropriate if the passages were each displayed in the context of the historical artifact or document from which they were pulled. "We talked about the possibility of putting the
Kastner asked Johnson to consider how a student of a different faith might feel if they walked into his classroom and saw his banners. "[T]hey may feel like, `Wow, I'm not welcome,' or `I'm not gonna fit in this classroom.' And they may feel bad. And I can't imagine that that would ever be your intent." Johnson was not convinced. According to Kastner, he told her, "Dawn, sometimes that's necessary," and refused to either remove his banners or display the more contextual versions the school offered to provide.
After the meeting with Johnson, Kastner spoke with Chiment and informed him of their discussion. Eventually, the full school board approved the decision to order Johnson to remove the banners. On January 19, 2007, Chiment phoned Johnson and told him that he would need to remove his banners. Four days later, Chiment followed up his phone call with a letter directing Johnson to review Poway Unified School District Administrative Procedure 3.11.2, "The Teaching of Controversial Issues," as well as California Education Code § 51511.
Chiment explained that the "prominent display of these brief and narrow selections of text from documents and songs without the benefit of any context and of a motto, all of which include the word `God' or `Creator' has the effect of using your influence as a teacher to promote a sectarian viewpoint." He added that these uses also constituted "aid to a particular religious sect, creed, or sectarian purpose" because they were "not incidental or illustrative of matters properly included in your course of study as a teacher of mathematics."
Johnson complied with the district's order and removed his banners. Shortly thereafter, he filed suit in federal court, alleging that Poway had violated his rights under the First and Fourteenth amendments of the United States Constitution, and article I, sections 2 and 4, of the California Constitution. He sought declaratory and injunctive relief.
After the lawsuit was filed, Johnson conducted site inspections at all four high schools in the school district. He identified and photographed a lengthy list of items he believed displayed sectarian viewpoints, including Tibetan prayer flags; a John Lennon poster with "Imagine" lyrics; a Mahatma Gandhi poster; a poster of
He later added, in regard to his selections, "I'm not intending to highlight or promote any of that kind of religious background because I don't know what it was. I'm trying to highlight the religious heritage and nature of our nation, that we have that as a foundation."
On August 14, 2009, cross-motions for summary judgment were filed. On February 25, 2010, the district court granted Johnson summary judgment on each of his claims. It concluded that Poway had created a limited public forum for teacher speech in its classrooms and had impermissibly limited Johnson's speech based upon his viewpoint. It granted Johnson declaratory relief and ordered Poway not to interfere with Johnson's future display. It also found that the school officials were not entitled to qualified immunity and ordered each to pay nominal damages. Johnson later moved for attorney's fees in the amount of $240,563.15. That motion has been stayed pending the outcome of Poway's timely appeal.
We have jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1291, and we review de novo the district court's grant of summary judgment to "determine, viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party and drawing all justifiable inferences in its favor, whether there are any genuine issues of material fact and whether the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Orr v. Bank of Am., NT & SA, 285 F.3d 764, 772 (9th Cir.2002). Because the parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment, we consider each party's evidence to evaluate whether summary judgment was appropriate. Fair Hous. Council of Riverside Cnty., Inc. v. Riverside Two, 249 F.3d 1132, 1136 (9th Cir.2001).
We consider the district court's determination that Poway violated Johnson's rights under the Free Speech and Establishment clauses of the First Amendment, as well as his equal protection rights under the Fourteenth Amendment.
We address first whether the district court erred in holding that Poway violated Johnson's federal free speech rights when it ordered that he no longer display his banners in his classroom.
In undertaking this inquiry, we consider whether the court erred in applying a pure forum-based analysis rather than the Pickering-based inquiry crafted by the Supreme Court to measure the constitutionality of the government's curtailment of government-employee speech. Pickering v. Bd. of Educ. of Twp. High Sch. Dist. 205, Will Cnty., Ill., 391 U.S. 563, 568, 88 S.Ct. 1731,
To some degree, we can understand the district court's mistake. An analysis of the government's regulation of speech ordinarily hinges on the context, or forum, in which the speech takes place. See, e.g., Perry Educ. Ass'n v. Perry Local Educators' Ass'n, 460 U.S. 37, 44-46, 103 S.Ct. 948, 74 L.Ed.2d 794 (1983). Under that traditional rubric, the government's power is at its least when speech takes place in a public forum, is greater when it is regulating speech in a limited public forum, and is at its greatest when regulating speech in a non-public forum. Id.
However, the Supreme Court has held that where the government acts as both sovereign and employer, this general forum-based analysis does not apply. Pickering, 391 U.S. at 568, 88 S.Ct. 1731; accord Garcetti v. Ceballos, 547 U.S. 410, 417-19, 126 S.Ct. 1951, 164 L.Ed.2d 689 (2006); City of San Diego, Cal. v. Roe, 543 U.S. 77, 80, 125 S.Ct. 521, 160 L.Ed.2d 410 (2004) ("[A] governmental employer may impose certain restraints on the speech of its employees, restraints that would be unconstitutional if applied to the general public."). Instead, the Court applies a distinct Pickering-based analysis that "reconcile[s] the employee's right to engage in speech and the government employer's right to protect its own legitimate interests in performing its mission." Roe, 543 U.S. at 82, 125 S.Ct. 521.
As initially described in Pickering, this analysis required only that courts balance "`the interests of the [public employee], as a citizen, in commenting upon matters of public concern and the interest of the State, as an employer, in promoting the efficiency of the public services it performs through its employees.'" Eng, 552 F.3d at 1070 (alteration in original) (quoting Pickering, 391 U.S. at 568, 88 S.Ct. 1731). Since Pickering, however, the test has evolved. See, e.g., Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 423-24, 426, 126 S.Ct. 1951 (speech must not be made pursuant to duties as employee); Roe, 543 U.S. at 82-83, 125 S.Ct. 521 ("speech must touch on a matter of `public concern'") (citing Connick v. Myers, 461 U.S. 138, 143, 103 S.Ct. 1684, 75 L.Ed.2d 708 (1983)); Mt. Healthy City Sch. Dist. Bd. of Educ. v. Doyle, 429 U.S. 274, 285-86, 97 S.Ct. 568, 50 L.Ed.2d 471 (1977) (causation). We have distilled this evolution into a "sequential five-step" inquiry:
Eng, 552 F.3d at 1070. Notably, "because these are sequential steps," a plaintiff's failure to satisfy a single one "necessarily
Despite Pickering and its progeny, the district court concluded that "the Pickering balancing test for government employee speech is the wrong test to apply" to measure the legality of Poway's actions. Johnson v. Poway Unified Sch. Dist., No. 07-cv-783-BEN-NLS, 2010 WL 768856, at *8 (S.D.Cal. Feb. 25, 2010). It rested this conclusion on a single fact—that Johnson's speech occurred in school, noting "`[i]t can hardly be argued that either students or teachers shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.'" Id. at *7 (alteration in original) (quoting Tinker v. Des Moines Indep. Cmty. Sch. Dist., 393 U.S. 503, 506, 89 S.Ct. 733, 21 L.Ed.2d 731 (1969) (emphasis added)). On appeal, Johnson urges us to follow suit. We decline his invitation.
Contrary to Johnson's belief and the district court's determination, no justifiable cause exists for refusing to apply our Pickering-based analysis to Johnson's claim. See Tucker v. Cal. Dep't of Educ., 97 F.3d 1204, 1210 (9th Cir.1996) (applying Pickering) ("Casting these red herrings aside, we look instead to applicable doctrine, which is found in the case law governing employee speech in the workplace."); see also Berry v. Dep't of Soc. Servs., 447 F.3d 642, 649-50 (9th Cir.2006) (rejecting an employee's contention that a "stricter test" than our Pickering-based analysis should apply when the underlying speech is religious); Downs v. L.A. Unified Sch. Dist., 228 F.3d 1003, 1016 (9th Cir.2000).
Pickering and Tinker are not mutually exclusive concepts. Tinker, 393 U.S. at 506, 89 S.Ct. 733 ("First Amendment rights, applied in light of the special characteristics of the school environment, are available to teachers and students." (emphasis added)). The very basis for undertaking a Pickering-based analysis of teacher speech, whether in-class or out, is the Court's recognition that teachers do not "relinquish the First Amendment rights they would otherwise enjoy as citizens to comment on matters of public interest in connection with the operation of the public schools in which they work." Pickering, 391 U.S. at 568, 88 S.Ct. 1731. That much should be evident from the test itself,
Thus, to do as Johnson suggests would require us to ignore that Pickering itself concerned a school district's attempt to curtail the out-of-school speech of a high school teacher. 391 U.S. at 564, 568, 88 S.Ct. 1731. It would require us to forget the very rationale undergirding the Court's creation of the Pickering doctrine: that "[w]hen a citizen enters government service, the citizen by necessity must accept certain limitations on his or her freedom," or else "there would be little chance for the efficient provision of public services." Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 418, 126 S.Ct. 1951 (citing Connick, 461 U.S. at 143, 103 S.Ct. 1684 ("[G]overnment offices could not function if every employment decision became a constitutional matter.")). It would require that we somehow conclude that a teacher's in-school speech warrants greater protection than his or her out-of-school speech—a proposition directly at odds with the common understanding of Pickering and its progeny. Id. at 423-24, 126 S.Ct. 1951 (explaining that "public statements" made "outside the course of performing... official duties" engender the greatest "First Amendment protection because that is the kind of activity engaged in by citizens who do not work for the government"); see Downs, 228 F.3d at 1016.
Moreover, addressing similar claims in similar contexts, we have refused to unnecessarily narrow Pickering's application. Berry, 447 F.3d at 649 (declining to apply a forum-based analysis to evaluate the government's curtailment of an employee's religious speech "because [the forum analysis] does not take into consideration the employer's interests that led the Supreme Court to adopt the Pickering balancing test in the first place."); id. at 650 ("Here, Mr. Berry contends that his speech is protected under the First Amendment as religious speech, rather than as comments upon matters of public concern. Nonetheless, we conclude that the Pickering balancing approach applies regardless of the reason an employee believes his or her speech is constitutionally protected."); Tucker, 97 F.3d at 1210.
So too have our sister circuits. When addressing claims concerning in-school teacher speech, each has applied Pickering to measure the constitutionality of the government's conduct. E.g., Evans-Marshall v. Bd. of Educ. of Tipp City Exempted Vill. Sch. Dist., 624 F.3d 332, 340 (6th Cir.2010); Borden v. Sch. Dist. of East Brunswick, 523 F.3d 153, 171 (3d Cir.2008) (holding under Pickering-based analysis that school could prohibit faculty participation in student-initiated prayer); Lee v. York Cnty. Sch. Div., 484 F.3d 687, 700 (4th Cir.2007) (holding under a Pickering-based analysis that a school board did not infringe the rights of a teacher when it ordered him to remove religious material from a classroom bulletin board); Brammer-Hoelter v. Twin Peaks Charter Acad., 492 F.3d 1192, 1204 (10th Cir.2007); Williams v. Dallas Indep. Sch. Dist., 480 F.3d 689, 694 (5th Cir.2007); Mayer v. Monroe Cnty. Cmty. Sch. Corp., 474 F.3d 477, 479-80 (7th Cir.2007) (applying Pickering-based test and holding that "the [F]irst [A]mendment does not entitle primary and secondary teachers, when conducting the education of captive audiences, to cover topics, or advocate viewpoints, that depart from the curriculum adopted by the school system"). We see no reason to depart from their company.
In sum, we think it plain that the appropriate guide for measuring the legality of the government's curtailment of employee speech in the workplace, including that of
Having identified the Pickering-based approach as the appropriate standard by which to measure Poway's conduct, we apply our five-step Pickering-based analysis to determine whether Poway violated Johnson's federal free speech rights when it ordered that he remove his banners from his classroom.
Applying that standard, we conclude that there is no legitimate question as to whether the school violated Johnson's rights—it did not. Downs, 228 F.3d at 1016; see Evans-Marshall, 624 F.3d at 340; Mayer, 474 F.3d at 479-80; Edwards v. Cal. Univ. of Pa., 156 F.3d 488, 491 (3d Cir.1998) ("[A]lthough a teacher's out-of-class conduct, including her advocacy of particular teaching methods, is protected, her in-class conduct is not." (citation and internal quotation marks omitted)); see also Borden, 523 F.3d at 171; Lee, 484 F.3d at 700. Though we do not lightly conclude that Johnson surpasses Eng-step one, "(1) whether the plaintiff spoke on a matter of public concern," 552 F.3d at 1070, we recognize that our hesitation is driven not by the nature of the speech itself but by the "in-school" setting and opportunity for that speech. These concerns underlie our inquiry under Eng-step two, "(2) whether the plaintiff spoke as a private citizen or public employee," id. at 1071 (relying on Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 423-24, 126 S.Ct. 1951), and lead us to conclude that Johnson spoke as an employee, not as a citizen. Accordingly, we climb no further. Huppert, 574 F.3d at 703 ("[F]ailure to meet one [step] necessarily concludes our inquiry.").
Under Eng, Johnson must first demonstrate that his banners "touched upon a matter of public concern." Connick, 461 U.S. at 149, 103 S.Ct. 1684; Eng, 552 F.3d at 1070.
This inquiry "is one of law, not fact." Connick, 461 U.S. at 148 n. 7, 103 S.Ct. 1684. And our aim, at least in theory, is simple: to determine whether the content of the employee's speech is sufficiently important to the public that its curtailment "warrant[s] judicial review." Berry, 447 F.3d at 649; accord Roe, 543 U.S. at 82-83, 125 S.Ct. 521.
To put theory into practice, we undertake a "generalized analysis of the nature of the speech." Desrochers v. City of San Bernardino, 572 F.3d 703, 709 (9th Cir. 2009); see Weeks v. Bayer, 246 F.3d 1231, 1234 (9th Cir.2001) (declining to adopt "rigid multi-part tests that would shoehorn communication into ill-fitting categories"). Under that analysis, we consider generally "the content, form, and context of a given statement, as revealed by the whole record," id. (quoting Connick, 461 U.S. at 147-48, 103 S.Ct. 1684), to ascertain whether speech "fairly can be said to relate to `any matter of political, social, or other concern to the community,'" Huppert, 574 F.3d at 703 (quoting Connick, 461 U.S. at 147-48, 103 S.Ct. 1684).
In the present case, our crowning of content is dispositive. Desrochers, 572 F.3d at 710; see Rankin, 483 U.S. at 386-87, 107 S.Ct. 2891. Though Johnson maintains that his banners express purely patriotic sentiments—that they concern "well-known historical, patriotic phrases and slogans central to our Nation's history"—it seems as plain to us as it was to school officials that Johnson's banners concern religion. As Johnson conceded at his deposition, "[T]his is discussing God as opposed to no God.... I'm trying to highlight the religious heritage and nature of our nation, that we have that as a foundation." Moreover, his after-the-fact statements merely reinforce the obvious. One would need to be remarkably unperceptive to see the statements "IN GOD WE TRUST," "ONE NATION UNDER GOD," "GOD BLESS AMERICA," "GOD SHED HIS GRACE ON THEE," and "All men are created equal, they are endowed by their CREATOR," as organized and displayed by Johnson and not understand them to convey a religious message.
The second Eng step requires Johnson to show that he "spoke as a private citizen," not as a "public employee." Eng, 552 F.3d at 1070-71.
Two inquiries are necessary to resolve this mixed question of law and fact. Posey v. Lake Pend Oreille Sch. Dist. No. 84, 546 F.3d 1121, 1129 (9th Cir.2008). First, a factual determination must be made as to the "scope and content of a plaintiff's job responsibilities." Eng, 552 F.3d at 1071. In undertaking this inquiry, courts are not to rely mechanically on formal or written job descriptions, which "often bear little resemblance to the duties an employee actually is expected to perform." Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 424-25, 126 S.Ct. 1951. "The proper inquiry is a practical one." Id. at 424, 126 S.Ct. 1951.
Second, the "ultimate constitutional significance" of those facts must be determined as a matter of law. Eng, 552 F.3d at 1071 (citations and internal quotation marks omitted). If Johnson spoke as any ordinary citizen might, then our inquiry continues. Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 419, 126 S.Ct. 1951. But if Johnson's speech "owes its existence" to his position as a teacher, then Johnson spoke as a public employee, not as a citizen, and our inquiry is at an end. Id. at 421-22, 126 S.Ct. 1951 (The First Amendment "does not invest [government employees] with a right to perform their jobs however they see fit."); Evans-Marshall, 624 F.3d at 340 (concluding that when teacher speaks as a government employee "the school board that hires that speech ... can surely `regulate the content of what is or is not expressed'" (quoting Rosenberger, 515 U.S. at 833, 115 S.Ct. 2510 (The government retains the power to "regulate the content of what is or is not expressed when it is the speaker or when it enlists private entities to convey its own message."))); see Downs, 228 F.3d at 1013 ("Simply because the government opens its mouth to speak
Our factual issue is not in dispute. Johnson does not hold a unique or exotic government position. As found by the district court, he is a math teacher who performs the ordinary duties of a math teacher. Johnson, 2010 WL 768856, at *2. In addition, Johnson did not make his speech while performing a function not squarely within the scope of his position.
More importantly, we recognize that "[e]xpression is a teacher's stock in trade, the commodity she sells to her employer in exchange for a salary." Mayer, 474 F.3d at 479; Evans-Marshall, 624 F.3d at 340. Thus, as a practical matter, we think it beyond possibility for fairminded dispute that the "scope and content of [Johnson's] job responsibilities" did not include speaking to his class in his classroom during class hours. Cf. Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 424, 126 S.Ct. 1951.
We consider next our legal inquiry: whether Johnson's speech owes its existence to his position, or whether he spoke just as any non-employee citizen could have. The answer is clear; he spoke as an employee. Downs, 228 F.3d at 1015; see also Peloza, 37 F.3d at 522-23. Certainly, Johnson did not act as a citizen when he went to school and taught class, took attendance, supervised students, or regulated their comings-and-goings; he acted as a teacher—a government employee. Cf. Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 422, 126 S.Ct. 1951 ("Ceballos did not act as a citizen when he went about conducting his daily professional activities, such as supervising attorneys, investigating charges, and preparing filings.... When he went to work and performed the tasks he was paid to perform, Ceballos acted as a government employee."). Similarly, Johnson did not act as an ordinary citizen when "espousing God as opposed to no God" in his classroom. Peloza, 37 F.3d at 522-23; Mayer, 474 F.3d at 479-80 ("The Constitution does not entitle teachers to present personal views to captive audiences against the instructions of elected officials."); see Lee, 484 F.3d at 695.
As we recognized in Peloza,
An ordinary citizen could not have walked into Johnson's classroom and decorated the walls as he or she saw fit, anymore than an ordinary citizen could demand that students remain in their seats and listen to whatever idiosyncratic perspective or sectarian viewpoints he or she wished to share. See Peloza, 37 F.3d at 522-23; Mayer, 474 F.3d at 479-80; Lee, 484 F.3d at 695. Unlike Pickering, who wrote a letter to his local newspaper as any citizen might, 391 U.S. at 564, 88 S.Ct. 1731, or Givhan, who met with her school's principal, a fellow employee who willingly "opened his office door to" her speech, 439 U.S. at 415, 99 S.Ct. 693, Johnson took advantage of his position to press his particular views upon the impressionable and "captive" minds before him. See Aguillard, 482 U.S. at 583-84, 107 S.Ct. 2573; Tucker, 97 F.3d at 1213.
Finally, as Downs demonstrates, we need not reach a different conclusion simply because Poway allows its teachers some freedom in decorating their classrooms. 228 F.3d at 1011-12. In Downs, high school teachers and other staff members created a bulletin board in a school hallway on which staff could post, pursuant to a school board policy, materials related to "Gay and Lesbian Awareness Month." Id. at 1006. Like Poway's policy for classroom decoration, "[m]aterials did not need approval before posting on the Gay and Lesbian Awareness bulletin boards, but were subject to the oversight of the school principal, who had ultimate authority within the school over the content of the boards." Id. Also like Poway's policy, the school policy at issue in Downs permitted only faculty and staff to post materials, but allowed "[m]aterials ... cover[ing] a wide range of topics" to be posted. Id.
Dissatisfied with the materials being posted by his co-workers, Downs decided to counteract their message by hanging a competing bulletin board on which he posted his own anti-homosexual materials. Id.
On appeal, we quickly cast aside Downs's contention, echoed by Johnson today, that the school had created a limited public forum either by allowing teachers to post materials of their choosing or by not "strictly policing" those materials posted and had thus relinquished its right to restrict the view-points expressed.
Id. at 1011-12. Accordingly, the board could "`take legitimate and appropriate steps to ensure that its message [wa]s neither garbled nor distorted' by its individual messengers," including ordering Downs to curtail his speech. Id. at 1011, 1013 (quoting Rosenberger, 515 U.S. at 833, 115 S.Ct. 2510 ("[W]hen the government appropriates public funds to promote
In sum, nothing in our holding today prevents Johnson from himself propounding his own opinion on "the religious heritage and nature of our nation" or how "God places prominently in our Nation's history." "Subject to any applicable forum analysis, he may [generally] do so on the sidewalks, in the parks, through the chat-rooms, at his dinner table, and in countless other locations." Id. at 1016 (citing Rust v. Sullivan, 500 U.S. 173, 198, 111 S.Ct. 1759, 114 L.Ed.2d 233 (1991)). "He may not do so, however, when he is speaking as the government, unless the government allows him to be its voice." Id.; see Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1131, 129 S.Ct. 1125 ("The Free Speech Clause restricts government regulation of private speech; it does not regulate government speech."). Because the speech at issue owes its existence to Johnson's position as a teacher, Poway acted well within constitutional limits in ordering Johnson not to speak in a manner it did not desire. Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 421-22, 126 S.Ct. 1951; Downs, 228 F.3d at 1013 (citing Rosenberger, 515 U.S. at 833, 115 S.Ct. 2510); Peloza, 37 F.3d at 522-23.
If the displays at issue in this case did not concern religion, our identification of the speech as the government's would end our inquiry. Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 421-22, 126 S.Ct. 1951. As we have discussed, the Free Speech Clause "has no application" to government speech, Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1131, 129 S.Ct. 1125, and, as we will discuss, individuals like Johnson have no personal interest in government speech on which to base an equal protection claim, Downs, 228 F.3d at 1017; see Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 421-22, 126 S.Ct. 1951. In regard to those claims, the bare fact that the speech belongs to the government is dispositive.
The same cannot be said for the Establishment Clause, however. That Clause does apply to government speech. E.g., Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1131-32 (noting that the "involvement of public officials in advocacy may be limited by law, regulation, or practice," including the Establishment Clause). And thus the government could run afoul of the Clause either through its speech, id., or, as argued by Johnson, through its act to curtail its speech—in this case, the display of the banners,
The district court found that the government had done just that; it ruled that Poway had violated the Establishment Clause by endorsing "Buddhist, Hindu, and anti-religious speech ... while silencing the Judeo-Christian speech of Johnson." Johnson, 2010 WL 768856, at *19. We review that conclusion de novo, Vasquez, 487 F.3d at 1254, and believe the claim involves two distinct but related contentions. First, that Poway evidenced a hostility toward Judeo-Christianity in curtailing the display of the banners, and second, that it displayed a hostility toward Judeo-Christianity and an endorsement of other religious beliefs via its presentation of the "other displays."
We start with the basics. The Establishment Clause does not wholly preclude the government from referencing religion. Grove v. Mead Sch. Dist. No. 354, 753 F.2d 1528, 1534 (9th Cir.1985) ("Not all mention of religion is prohibited in public schools."); see also Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39, 42, 101 S.Ct. 192, 66 L.Ed.2d 199 (1980) (per curiam) ("[T]he Bible may constitutionally be used in an appropriate study of history, civilization, ethics, comparative religion, or the like."). Not only would such a drastic and draconian requirement raise substantial difficulties as to what might be left to talk about, but, as the district court took great pains to point out, it would require that we ignore much of our own history and that of the world in general.
Rather, what the Clause requires is "governmental neutrality"—"neutrality between religion and religion, and between religion and nonreligion." McCreary Cnty., Ky. v. ACLU of Ky., 545 U.S. 844, 860, 125 S.Ct. 2722, 162 L.Ed.2d 729 (2005) (quoting Epperson v. Arkansas, 393 U.S. 97, 104, 89 S.Ct. 266, 21 L.Ed.2d 228 (1968)) (other citations omitted). It requires that the government "not be overtly hostile to religion but also that it may not place its prestige, coercive authority, or resources behind a single religious faith or behind religious belief in general, compelling nonadherents to support the practices or proselytizing of favored religious organizations and conveying the message that those who do not contribute gladly are less than full members of the community." Tex. Monthly, Inc. v. Bullock, 489 U.S. 1, 9, 109 S.Ct. 890, 103 L.Ed.2d 1 (1989) (plurality opinion); see Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602, 612, 91 S.Ct. 2105, 29 L.Ed.2d 745 (1971). In essence, the Clause serves not as a closed door, but as
To determine whether the government has strayed too far from the straight course, we continue to apply the threefactor test set forth in Lemon. "Under Lemon, a government act is consistent with the Establishment Clause if it: (1) has a secular purpose; (2) has a principal or primary effect that neither advances nor disapproves of religion; and (3) does not foster excessive governmental entanglement with religion." Vasquez, 487 F.3d at 1255 (citing Lemon, 403 U.S. at 612-13, 91 S.Ct. 2105); accord McCreary Cnty., 545 U.S. at 859, 875, 125 S.Ct. 2722. We have noted, however, that "[i]n recent years, the Supreme Court essentially has collapsed these last two prongs to ask `whether the challenged governmental practice has the effect of endorsing religion.'" Trunk, 629 F.3d at 1106 (quoting Access Fund v. U.S. Dep't of Agric., 499 F.3d 1036, 1043 (9th Cir.2007) (reviewing cases)). We also note that these factors are not to be applied in a vacuum. Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1136, 129 S.Ct. 1125. Context is critical when evaluating the government's conduct. Cnty. of Allegheny v. ACLU Greater Pittsburgh Chapter, 492 U.S. 573, 598, 109 S.Ct. 3086, 106 L.Ed.2d 472 (1989) ("Under the Court's holding in Lynch [v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct. 1355, 79 L.Ed.2d 604 (1984) ], the effect of a crèche display turns on its setting. Here, unlike in Lynch, nothing in the context of the display detracts from the crèche's religious message."); accord Trunk, 629 F.3d at 1102; Grove, 753 F.2d at 1534.
Applying Lemon to the undisputed facts before us, we find no violation. First, Poway did not contravene the Clause when it ordered that Johnson's banners be removed. "The Court has been particularly vigilant in monitoring compliance with the Establishment Clause in elementary and secondary schools." Aguillard, 482 U.S. at 583-84, 107 S.Ct. 2573 ("Families entrust public schools with the education of their children, but condition their trust on the understanding that the classroom will not purposely be used to advance religious views that may conflict with the private beliefs of the student and his or her family."). For that reason, "[w]e have made it clear that `[g]overnmental actions taken to avoid potential Establishment Clause violations have a valid secular purpose under Lemon.'" Nurre v. Whitehead, 580 F.3d 1087, 1096 (9th Cir. 2009) (quoting Vasquez, 487 F.3d at 1255), cert. denied ___ U.S. ___, 130 S.Ct. 1937, 176 L.Ed.2d 399 (2010); Peloza, 37 F.3d at 522.
Moreover, action taken to "avoid conflict with the Establishment Clause" and maintain the very neutrality the Clause requires neither has a primary effect of advancing or inhibiting religion nor excessively entangles government with religion. Nurre, 580 F.3d at 1097-98; Vasquez, 487 F.3d at 1257-58; see Sch. Dist. of Abington Twp., Pa. v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 225-26, 83 S.Ct. 1560, 10 L.Ed.2d 844 (1963) (rejecting the contention that the absence of religion equates to "affirmatively opposing or showing hostility to religion"). Notably, as in Nurre and Vasquez, we do not, and need not, "adjudge the constitutionality of the" display in question in order to resolve the government's
In evaluating the constitutionality of the other displays, we think the court neglected its own admonishment that government speech "`[s]imply having religious content or promoting a message consistent with a religious doctrine does not run afoul of the Establishment Clause.'" Johnson, 2010 WL 768856, at *6 (alteration in original) (quoting Van Orden v. Perry, 545 U.S. 677, 690, 125 S.Ct. 2854, 162 L.Ed.2d 607 (2005) (plurality opinion)). Admittedly, Gandhi, the Dalai Lama, and Malcolm X each have some religious connotation. However, as the district court noted, simple connotation does not run afoul of Lemon. Van Orden, 545 U.S. at 691-92, 125 S.Ct. 2854. The same is true of the other posters. See Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1135, 129 S.Ct. 1125 (describing John Lennon's song "Imagine" in its discussion of speech that may have different meanings to different people); Grove, 753 F.2d at 1534 (discussing The Learning Tree). Each would be violative only if used to endorse or inhibit religion, and nothing in the record suggests such use here.
The Tibetan prayer flags are no different. Though some amici suggest that the flags are so recognizably religious that their use "as an instrument of religion cannot be gainsaid," Schempp, 374 U.S. at 224, 83 S.Ct. 1560 (discussing the Bible); see Stone, 449 U.S. at 41, 101 S.Ct. 192 (Bible and Ten Commandments), the record contains only evidence to the contrary. Lori Brickley, the science teacher who provided the flags, testified that she had no idea as to whether the flags had any particular or significant religious import, only that she had been told they represented "the basic elements" Tibetan people believe "necessary for their life." She also noted that though one of the flags contains a small picture of Buddha not one of her students had ever identified the flags as religious.
Furthermore, Brickley testified that the flags were neither hung nor used for any religious purpose. She explained that she uses the flags as part of her discussion of fossils found on and near Mount Everest because the flags are authentic—bought in Nepal near Mount Everest—and are typically purchased by climbers to put "at the top of Mount Everest when they reach the peak." She described how she typically shows a video of scientists taking cores samples on Everest and uses the flags to further stimulate the interest of her students.
Limited to these facts, we would not think that an objective observer could conclude that the flags were displayed for a religious purpose. McCreary Cnty., 545 U.S. at 862, 125 S.Ct. 2722 ("The eyes that look to purpose belong to an `objective observer,' one who takes account of the traditional external signs that show up in the ... official act." (citations and internal quotation marks omitted)); id. at 859, 125 S.Ct. 2722 (noting the rarity of finding a religious purpose). Rather, the undisputed evidence supports a common-sense conclusion that the flags are intended to stimulate scientific interest, not religious pressure (or even permissible religious discussion). Id. at 863, 125 S.Ct. 2722; cf. Stone, 449 U.S. at 42, 101 S.Ct. 192.
Of course, because the speech is the government's, Brickley's purpose is not dispositive. Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1136, 129 S.Ct. 1125 ("Contrary to respondent's apparent belief, it frequently is not possible to identify a single `message' that is conveyed by an object or structure, and consequently, the thoughts or sentiments expressed by a government entity that accepts and displays such an object may be quite different from those of either its creator or its donor."). Poway's policy prohibiting sectarian and religious displays only further supports a conclusion of secular purpose. McCreary Cnty., 545 U.S. at 863, 125 S.Ct. 2722 ("[T]he government's action was held unconstitutional only because openly available data supported a commonsense conclusion that a religious objective permeated the government's action.").
In regard to "endorsement"—Lemon factors two and three—the evidence again suggests the absence of a violation. Though the flags may very well represent the Buddhist faith, their use by Poway has nothing to do with their religious connotation. Instead, the evidence in this case demonstrates that the district uses the flags to stimulate interest in science and scientific discovery without any mention of religion. Thus, while the flags might themselves contain "religious content," Van Orden, 545 U.S. at 690, 125 S.Ct. 2854, the primary effect of the school's use was entirely secular and fostered no entanglement with religion. Cf. Lemon, 403 U.S. at 612-13, 91 S.Ct. 2105. Unlike in Allegheny, the "context of the display" here sufficiently "detracts" from any religious message the flags might otherwise convey. See 492 U.S. at 598, 109 S.Ct. 3086. Any residual religious effect was therefore anodyne, not stigmatic. Trunk, 629 F.3d at 1109 ("By `endorsement,' we are not concerned with all forms of government approval of religion—many of which are anodyne—but rather those acts that send the stigmatic message to nonadherents `that they are outsiders, not full members of the political community, and an accompanying message to adherents that they are insiders, favored members....'" (alteration in original) (quoting Santa Fe Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290, 309-10, 120 S.Ct. 2266, 147 L.Ed.2d 295 (2000)) (citation and internal quotation marks omitted)).
Because neither Poway's removal of Johnson's banners nor its display of other materials violated the Clause, the district court should have granted summary judgment to Poway, not Johnson. We reverse the court's judgment as to Johnson's Establishment Clause claim and remand with instructions that it enter summary judgment in favor of Poway.
Finally, we reach Poway's claim that the district court erred in granting Johnson summary judgment on his claim
Our resolution of Johnson's freedom of speech and Establishment Clause claims leaves little room for discussion. All the speech of which Johnson complains belongs to the government, and the government has the right to "speak for itself." Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1131, 129 S.Ct. 1125 (citation and internal quotation marks omitted). When it does, "it is entitled to say what it wishes," Rosenberger, 515 U.S. at 833, 115 S.Ct. 2510, "and to select the views that it wants to express." Pleasant Grove, 129 S.Ct. at 1131, 129 S.Ct. 1125 (citing Nat'l Endowment for Arts v. Finley, 524 U.S. 569, 598, 118 S.Ct. 2168, 141 L.Ed.2d 500 (1998) (Scalia, J., concurring) ("It is the very business of government to favor and disfavor points of view....")).
Because Johnson had no individual right to speak for the government, he could not have suffered an equal protection violation. Downs, 228 F.3d at 1017 ("Because we determine that Downs has no First Amendment right to speak for the government, his equal protection claim based upon the deprivation of this asserted right also fails to withstand summary judgment."); see Ceballos, 547 U.S. at 421-22, 126 S.Ct. 1951 ("Restricting speech that owes its existence to a public employee's professional responsibilities does not infringe any liberties the employee might have enjoyed as a private citizen. It simply reflects the exercise of employer control over what the employer itself has commissioned or created.").
We reverse and remand to the district court with instructions to enter judgment in favor of Poway on this issue.
In conclusion, we agree with the district court that no genuine issue of material fact remains in the present case. However, the district court made a critical error when it determined that Poway had created a limited public forum for teacher speech and evaluated Poway's actions under a traditional forum-based analysis rather than the controlling Pickering-based inquiry. Applying the correct legal principles to the undisputed facts before us, we conclude that Poway was entitled to judgment as a matter of law on each of the claims raised by Johnson.
We thus reverse and remand with instructions that the district court vacate its grant of injunctive and declaratory relief, as well as its award of damages, and enter summary judgment in favor of Poway and its officials on all claims. Johnson shall bear all costs. Fed. R.App. P. 39(a)(3).
Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment provides, in relevant detail:
"The term `liberty' in the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution makes the First Amendment applicable to the States." McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Comm'n, 514 U.S. 334, 336 n. 1, 115 S.Ct. 1511, 131 L.Ed.2d 426 (1995).
97 F.3d at 1209.
Moreover, even if true, these forced distinctions are immaterial. So long as it is still the school's walls being adorned and the school's charges being indoctrinated, the school acts well within its power. Berry, 447 F.3d at 651 ("[T]he government `has a greater interest in controlling what materials are posted on its property than it does in controlling the speech of the people who work for it.'" (quoting Tucker, 97 F.3d at 1214)); Peloza, 37 F.3d at 522; Lee, 484 F.3d at 695.