Aaron Lumpkin appeals from his convictions and sentence for robbery and burglary. We find no merit in Lumpkin's challenge of his convictions. We, therefore, affirm his convictions and limit our discussion to Lumpkin's appeal of his sentence. We reverse the sentence and remand for re-sentencing.
The recommended sentence under the guidelines was nine to twelve years. The trial court sentenced Lumpkin to seventeen years, citing three reasons for its upward departure: 1) "that the crime, as perpetrated, created extreme risk to the physical safety of [the victims]"; 2) "that the perpetration of the crime reflected a heightened degree of premeditation"; and 3) "that the crime created extreme psychological trauma to the victims and their family." None of these reasons warrant departure.
Extreme risk to the physical safety of the victims of an armed robbery is inherent in the nature of the crime. Thorne v. State, 496 So.2d 891 (Fla. 2d DCA 1986); Olive v. State, 489 So.2d 893 (Fla. 3d DCA 1986). It is therefore already factored into the guidelines and is an invalid reason for departure. Thorne, Olive, see State v. Mischler, 488 So.2d 523 (Fla. 1986); Williams v. State, 492 So.2d 1308 (Fla. 1986); Steiner v. State, 469 So.2d 179 (Fla. 3d DCA), review denied, 479 So.2d 118 (Fla. 1985). Likewise, premeditation is an inherent element of armed robbery and is, therefore, not a clear and convincing reason for upward departure. Campos v. State, 488 So.2d 677 (Fla. 4th DCA 1986); Knowlton v. State, 466 So.2d 278 (Fla. 4th DCA), review denied, 476 So.2d 675 (Fla. 1985); Carney v. State, 458 So.2d 13 (Fla. 1st DCA 1984), aff'd, 476 So.2d 165 (Fla. 1985).
The third reason given for departure, namely, psychological trauma to the victims, is also not a valid reason for departure unless the trauma results from extraordinary circumstances not normally accompanying the crime, State v. Rousseau, 509 So.2d 281, 284 (Fla. 1987); McCray v. State, 503 So.2d 995 (Fla. 3d DCA 1987), or "the victim has a discernible physical manifestation resulting from the psychological trauma." Rousseau, 509 So.2d at 284 (Fla. 1987); see State v. Cote, 487 So.2d 1039 (Fla. 1986); Tompkins v. State, 483 So.2d 115 (Fla. 2d DCA 1986). Cf. Casteel v. State, 498 So.2d 1249 (Fla. 1986) (emotional trauma valid ground for departure where woman sexually assaulted in presence of her child). The record in this case contains no evidence that the psychological trauma experienced by the victims was unusually greater than that normally experienced by the victims of armed robbery, and there was no claim of any resulting physical manifestations. Nor is the alleged psychological trauma experienced by members of the victims' families a valid reason for departure in the instant case.
None of the reasons provided by the trial court warrant departure from the sentencing guidelines. Accordingly, this case is reversed and remanded for resentencing.