VINCENT L. BRODERICK, District Judge.
Plaintiffs, in their complaint and now by motion, seek either a writ of mandamus to compel the United States Attorney to present the "facts" concerning alleged criminal wrongdoing of certain named defendants to the grand jury or for me to request the grand jury to hear testimony by plaintiff's attorney, Mr. Piccoli, concerning that wrongdoing.
At the outset, I would point out that plaintiffs do not seek to compel the U.S. Attorney to prosecute the named defendants. Rather, they seek to have either the court or the United States Attorney present certain information to the grand jury. This distinction is critical because almost the entirety of the opposition to plaintiffs' motion is based on the mischaracterization by the U.S. Attorney and the other defendants of plaintiffs' motion as one seeking to compel the U.S. Attorney to initiate proceedings against the other defendants.
Thus the U.S. Attorney argues that plaintiffs lack standing to bring this suit because "a private litigant lacks a sufficiently distinct interest in a criminal prosecution to compel its initiation." Govt. Memo at 7, citing Linda R.S. v. Richard D., 410 U.S. 614, 619, 93 S.Ct. 1146, 1149, 35 L.Ed.2d 536 (1973); see Leeke v. Timmerman, 454 U.S. 83, 86-87, 102 S.Ct. 69, 70-71, 70 L.Ed.2d 65 (1981); Heckler v. Chaney, ___ U.S. ___, 105 S.Ct. 1649, 84 L.Ed.2d 714 (1985) and other cases. He argues that because presenting the information to the grand jury might not lead to an indictment, or conviction, or ultimately to an award in the plaintiffs' pending civil action, plaintiffs' interest is too attenuated from the relief sought to justify allowing them to bring the instant action.
"Congress may enact statutes creating legal rights, the invasion of which creates standing, even though no injury would exist without the statute." Linda R.S. v. Richard D., 410 U.S. 614, 617 n. 3, 93 S.Ct. 1146, 1148 n. 3, 35 L.Ed.2d 536 (1973). See Warth v. Seldin, 422 U.S. 490, 500, 95 S.Ct. 2197, 2206, 45 L.Ed.2d 343 (1975); Trafficante v. Metropolitan Life Ins. Co., 409 U.S. 205, 212, 93 S.Ct. 364, 368, 34 L.Ed.2d 415 (1972) (White, J., concurring); Hardin v. Kentucky Utilities Co., 390 U.S. 1, 6, 88 S.Ct. 651, 654, 19 L.Ed.2d 787 (1968). When determining whether a plaintiff has standing, I need only examine the complaint to see if the plaintiff has alleged that he has suffered a cognizable injury. Nash v. Califano, 613 F.2d 10, 14 (2d Cir.1980). 18 U.S.C. § 3332(a) creates a duty on the part of the United States Attorney that runs to the plaintiffs, and the breach of that duty gives the plaintiffs standing to seek its enforcement.
The defendants contend that "the decision to prosecute is the exclusive prerogative of the Executive Branch." Govt.Memo at 10, citing United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683, 94 S.Ct. 3090, 41 L.Ed.2d 1039 (1974); Nathan v. Smith, 737 F.2d 1069
In Nathan, the issue was prosecutorial discretion under the Ethics in Government Act, 28 U.S.C. §§ 591 et seq. Section 591(a) provided
737 F.2d at 1079 (emphasis added).
Contrary to what Judge Bork stated, Congress has divided the execution of the law into segments, with the presentation of information to the grand jury concerning racketeering violations being an area where the prosecutor's discretion was explicitly removed. Judge Bork himself recognized that judicial opinion was not unanimous on this question. The portion of his concurrence emphasized above is a criticism of the decision of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in United States v. Cox, 342 F.2d 167 (5th Cir.1965). In Cox a 4-3 majority held that a United States Attorney could not be compelled to sign an indictment returned by the grand jury, and that without his signature the indictment would have no legal effect. 342 F.2d at 172. A different 4-3 majority held, however, that the United States Attorney could be required to assist the grand jury by drafting an indictment in accordance with their wishes, even if he had no intention of signing it if it were voted a true bill. 342 F.2d at 181. Accord, Report and Recommendation of June 5, 1972 Grand Jury, 370 F.Supp. 1219 (D.D.C.1974).
In other contexts, courts have acknowledged that prosecutorial discretion is not absolute. In Powell v. Katzenbach, 359 F.2d 234, 235 (D.C.Cir.1965), cert. denied, 384 U.S. 906, 86 S.Ct. 1341, 16 L.Ed.2d 359 (1966), the court stated: "[w]e will assume, without deciding, that where Congress has withdrawn all discretion from the prosecutor by special legislation, a court might be empowered to force prosecutions in some circumstances." This term in Wayte v. United States, ___ U.S. ___, 105 S.Ct. 1524, 84 L.Ed.2d 547 (1985), the Supreme Court stated that prosecutorial discretion is not "`unfettered.' Selectivity in the enforcement of criminal laws is ... subject to constitutional constraints." ___ U.S. at ___, 105 S.Ct. at 1531 (quoting United States v. Batchelder, 442 U.S. 114, 125, 99 S.Ct. 2198, 2205, 60 L.Ed.2d 755 (1979)).
Also this term, in Heckler v. Chaney, ___ U.S. ___, 105 S.Ct. 1649, 84 L.Ed.2d 714 (1985), the Supreme Court equated an agency's refusal to take requested enforcement action with a prosecutor's decision not to prosecute. After reviewing the numerous reasons why judicial review of such decisions was unsuitable the court went on to say:
___ U.S. at ___, 105 S.Ct. at 1657.
Plaintiffs argue that the language of § 3332(a) is clear and unambiguous: "Any such attorney receiving information concerning such an alleged offense from any other person shall, if requested by such other person, inform the grand jury of such alleged offense, the identity of such other person, and such attorney's action or recommendation." They contend that the duty to present the information is mandatory. Defendants contend that use of such mandatory language is common throughout the criminal provisions of the United States Code and has often been held to permit the exercise of prosecutorial discretion. See Heckler v. Chaney, ___ U.S. at ___, 105 S.Ct. at 1657; Inmates of Attica Correctional Facility v. Rockefeller, 477 F.2d 375, 381 (2d Cir.1973) ("The mandatory nature of the word `required' as it appears in [42 U.S.C.] § 1987 is insufficient to evince a broad Congressional purpose to bar the exercise of executive discretion in the prosecution of federal civil rights crimes."). The resolution of this issue lies in an analysis of the legislative history of 18 U.S.C. § 3332(a).
Section 103(a) of the proposed Act contained the antecedent of 18 U.S.C. § 3332(a). It provided in pertinent part:
Senate Hearings at 7.
As Senator McClellan explained during the Hearings before Subcommittee No. 5 of the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, Ninety-First Congress, Second Session on S.30 (hereinafter "House Hearings") (1969), Title I of S.30 "guaranteed a measure of independence" to the special grand juries it authorized. House Hearings at 82. When pressed by the chairman of the House committee on the "need for granting special grand juries almost complete autonomy from the Federal district court and the U.S. Attorney," Senator McClellan stated: "Congress has ample grounds for determining that a need exists for creation of special Federal grand juries with substantial independence of the prosecutor and court." House Hearings at 118.
Although not the most controversial aspect of the Act, much comment both pro and con was elicited during the House and Senate hearings concerning the provisions of the bill concerning grand juries. The chairman of the House Committee on the Judiciary stated, "[w]ith reference to Title I[,] ... we have opposition expressed from the Judicial Conference of the United States[,].... the New York County Lawyers Association[,] ... the Association of the Bar of the City of New York[,].... the National Association of Counties—United States Conference of Mayors and the American Civil Liberties Union oppose Title I." House Hearings at 177-78.
Title I had powerful supporters as well. In a memorandum submitted to the Senate committee by then Attorney General John Mitchell, the Justice Department voiced its support of Title I:
Senate Hearings at 366-67.
In response to the many criticisms, the provisions of the proposed Act regarding grand juries were amended. During the House Hearings, Edward L. Wright presented the views of the American Bar Association, which were essentially embodied in the Act in its final form.
House Hearings at 541 (emphasis in original).
Analysis of the language of the Act as it was finally enacted indicates that Congress intended the United States Attorney to be the channel through which ordinary citizens conveyed information about organized crime to the grand jury. To argue, as the government does (and as Judge Bork did in
2 U.S.Code Cong. & Adm.News, House Report No. 91-1549, 91st Cong.2d Sess. (1970) 4007 at 4015.
Thus both the language of 18 U.S.C. § 3332(a) and its legislative history indicate that Congress intended to remove the prosecutor's discretion in deciding whether to present information to the grand jury. He retains discretion with respect to how he acts and what he recommends concerning that information.
18 U.S.C. § 3332(a) creates a right in every person to have information known by them concerning organized crime to be presented to the grand jury. It provides two ways for this to occur—either the court may bring it to the grand jury's attention or a United States attorney can. Plaintiffs have requested one or the other form of relief, in the alternative.
In order to grant a request for mandamus a court must find: "(1) a clear right in the plaintiff to the relief sought; (2) a plainly defined and peremptory duty on the part of the defendant to do the act in question; and (3) no other adequate remedy available." Lovallo v. Froehlke, 468 F.2d 340, 343 (2d Cir.1972), cert. denied, 411 U.S. 918, 93 S.Ct. 1555, 36 L.Ed.2d 310 (1973).
Plaintiffs have urged me to request the grand jury to hear their evidence against the defendants. Although a judge may present evidence to a grand jury both under common law, see O'Bryan v. Chandler, 352 F.2d 987 (10th Cir.1965), and pursuant to the language of 18 U.S.C. § 3332(a), I decline to do so. The legislative history of Section 3332(a) suggests that Congress envisioned the United States Attorney's office as the primary channel of information to the grand jury. In a busy district such as this, moreover, it is the United States Attorney and not the individual district judge who is familiar with, and in fact sets, the schedules of the grand juries which have been impanelled in the district. Any effort by myself to bring plaintiffs' information to the attention of a grand jury would necessarily be channeled through the United States Attorney.
Since the United States Attorney has been requested to present certain information to the grand jury he must do so. I will not relieve him of a duty which Congress has seen fit to impose. 18 U.S.C. § 3332(a) imposes a "plainly defined and peremptory duty" on the part of the United States Attorney to present the plaintiffs' information concerning the alleged wrongdoing of the other defendants to the grand jury.
When first presented with plaintiffs' information in February, the United States Attorney's Office declined to act. It cited its heavy caseload, the need to conduct its own investigation to satisfy internal policies and the need to obtain the approval of the Justice Department before proceeding, and concluded that the chances of commencing prosecution of the other defendants named herein before the statute of limitations ran in May were almost non-existent. The substantial work already done by plaintiffs' attorneys in preparing this case and the apparent willingness of the alleged victims to come forward and testify should greatly facilitate the investigation
Plaintiffs' request for a writ of mandamus is granted.